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Edward H Allen DE- 531 - History

Edward H Allen DE- 531 - History

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Edward H. Allen

Edward Henry Allen born 2 March 1908 in Pekin N.D., graduated from the Naval Academy in 1931. Serving with Scouting Squadron 2 in Lexington (CV-2), Lieutenant Allen was reported missing 7 May 1942 when his plane was shot down by enemy aircraft during the Battle of the Coral Sea. He was awarded a Navy Cross for the defense of his carrier 20 February 1942 and a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross for the action to which he lost his life.

(DE-531: dp. 1,350; 1. 306', b. 36'8", dr. 9'5", s. 24 k.
cpl. 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; cl.
John C. Butler)

Edward H. Allen (I)E-531) was launched 7 October 1943 by Boston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. David EI. Clark; and commissioned 16 December 1943, Lieutenant Commander M. M. Sanford in command.

Edward H. Allen sailed from Boston 6 March 1944 for Miami to serve as schoolship for precommissioning crews of escort vessels. She had similar duty at Norfolk from June to November 1944, then returned to Miami until 10 June 1945. She was at Casco Bay preparing for service in the Pacific when the war ended, and remained there for experimental operations. After spending Navy Day at Boston, Edward H. Allen sailed to Green Cove Springs, Fla., where she was placed out of commission in reserve 10 May 1946.

Recommissioned 26 February 1951 Edward H. Allen was assigned to the 3d Naval District and cruised from New York to Florida, Bermuda, and the Caribbean in connection with the Naval Reserve training program. From 13 June to 10 July 1953 and again from 17 June to 15 July 1955 she made extended cruises, visiting ports in France, Portugal, England, Spain, and the Azores. While at sea in July 1956 she was ordered to the scene of the tragic collision of the liners Andrea Doria and Stockholm and rescued the captain and 76 of the Doria crew before she sank. For her assistance, the destroyer was thanked by the Italian Government and her commanding officer awarded the Italian Legion of Merit. Edward H. Allen continued her training duty until again placed out of commission in reserve 9 January 1958.

Rare Books in the Cleveland Health Sciences Library: Home

The Rare and Historical collections at the Allen Memorial Medical Library represent a large and unique collection of rare medical books, medical journals, incunables, and pamphlets on the history of medicine. The collection is jointly owned by Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Medical Library Association and held within the Allen Memorial Medical Library.

The Cleveland Medical Library Association (CMLA) was founded in 1894 by practicing medical doctors in the Cleveland community who wished to combine their personal collections of books. The first book donated to the newly combined CMLA collection was a 1555 De Humani Corporis Fabrica, donated by Howard A. Kelly. In 1925, after Elizabeth Severance Prentiss provided a significant financial gift, construction was started on a new library for the CMLA. The new library building was named after Ms. Prentiss&rsquos former husband, Dudley P. Allen, who had been a principal founder of the CMLA prior to his death in 1915.

Through the donations of the extensive collections of Jared Potter Kirtland, Reuben Vance, Gustav Weber, and Henry Handerson in the late nineteenth century, and Dudley P. Allen, William Corlett, Otto Glasser, Edward Harvey Cushing, and Robert Stecher in the twentieth century the rare book collection at the Allen Library grew significantly. The rare collection has several strengths, including anatomy, surgery, materia medica, and physick. With surgical specialties focused on ophthalmology, otolaryngology, urology, orthopedics, and reconstructive surgery.

In 1897 Gustav C. E. Weber (1828-1912) donated his personal library to the fledgling CMLA. It numbered over 1025 volumes, pamphlets, and folios, some quite rare and likely inherited from his father and grandfather. Surgery comprised a real core strength of Weber&rsquos library, and it included such older classics as Johann Scultetus, Armamentarium Chirurgicum (1656), Lorenz Heister, Chirurgie (1731), Percival Pott, Chirurgical Works (1778), and John Bell, The principles of surgery (1815). Important early German journals from Weber&rsquos library include the Journal der Chirurgie und Augenheilkunde(1820-48), Kritisches Repertorium für die gesammte Heilkunde (1823-33), and Archiv für klinische Chirurgie (1861+). Books featuring surgical instruments constitute the other particular strength of Weber&rsquos library.

Additionally, the collection of Reuben Aleshire Vance (1845-1894) was acquired in 1900, which includes such intriguing early works as the De Curtorum Chirurgiaof Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1597), A discourse of the whole art of chyrurgerieby Peter Lowe, (1612), The Works Of That Famous Chirurgion Ambrose Parey (1634), Chirurgical Treatise of Richard Wiseman (1686), and The art of surgery by Daniel Turner (1739). Vance proved alert to notable, path breaking surgical works of his own time, like John Snow&rsquos On chloroform and other anaesthetics their action and administration (1858) or Arpad Gerster&rsquos The rules of aseptic and antiseptic surgery (1888).

George Gehring Marshall's Herbal Collection was acquired in 1946. The collection has approximately 300 works, including some of the rarest jewels in botanical literature and coincidentally in medical history, with its strength centered in over 125 titles printed before 1700. The collection has six incunabula, including the seminal herbal, Herbarius, printed by Peter Schoeffer in 1484, and a complete copy of Le grant herbier en francois, printed in Paris by Pierre LeCaron. It also includes the most important of the 16th and 17th century herbalists, including Otto Brunfels, Leonhart Fuchs, and Hieronymus Bock.

In 1929, through a clerical error by Magg's Brothers, London, a catalog intended for Harvey Cushing ended up in the hands of his nephew, Edward H. Cushing. The catalog promoted 33 volumes once owned by Nicolaus Pol, a 15th century physician to the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian and Charles V. Edward Cushing was able, with the help of Western Reserve University, to acquire them. The Pol collection includes Johannes Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae, widely held to be the first illustrated medical work in the West.

In addition, the rare book collection in the Allen Memorial Medical Library holds significant collections of works by or about Charles Darwin (including nearly 200 Darwin letters), and a similarly extensive collection focused on Sigmund Freud.

African American Slave Owners in Kentucky

In 1924 the Research Department of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History completed a study of the free Negro slave owners found in the 1830 U. S. Federal Census. The study found 3,777 Negro slave owners in the United States. Negro slave owners were listed in 29 Kentucky counties (see below).

Ownership may have meant the purchase of a spouse, an individual's children, or other relatives who were not emancipated. Ownership was also an investment: purchased children and adults may or may not have been given the opportunity to work off their purchase price in exchange for their freedom.

A History of World Societies documents a total of 6,000 Negro slave owners in the U.S. for the year 1840 [p. 846]. The 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules do not identify slave owners by race the individual names of slave owners must be searched in the U.S. Federal Census to identify the individual's race.

For more see the Research Department's article, "Free Negro owners of slaves in the United States in 1830," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan., 1924), pp. 41-85 A History of World Societies, by J. P. McKay, et al. [2006] and A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas.

Kentucky Counties with Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830, compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp. 4-6].

The History and Philosophy of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontia*

by GEORGE W. HAHN, DDS, Berkeley, California

Read at the Twenty-fifth-Anniversary Biennial Meeting of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists, Chicago, November 6, 1955.

When your program chairman invited me to open the Twenty-fifth Anniversary Meeting with an address on the history and philosophy of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontia, I was happy to accept for several reasons. As a former student of Dr. Angle and as a charter member of the Society, who had the rare privilege of knowing Dr. Angle for the ten years preceding his death, the subject appealed to me. It also seemed a most appropriate occasion to put in writing a short history of our society for the benefit of the younger men who were not so fortunate as to have enjoyed that association.

The present Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontia was brought into this world not as a newborn infant but rather as the result of the reorganization of the society of like name which preceded it. This rebirth took place at the Lake Shore Club here in Chicago on November l7, 1930, a quarter of a century ago. We are meeting here today in commemoration of that occasion.

One cannot, one should not recount the history of the Angle Society without some reference to the man after whom the society was named, a man whose influence on orthodontic practice and teaching is greater today than it was at any time during his life. He was a man of intelligence, sensitivity and perseverance whose goal was perfection and with which there could be no compromise.

Dr. Angle was born on a farm in Pennsylvania in 1855, just one hundred years ago, the fifth of seven children. In that family money was scarce and self-reliance and frugality were among the virtues he learned early. Although never an outstanding student in "book-learnin" as he called it, he showed a marked ability to improve and create mechanical equipment such as was commonly found on early American farms. From the beginning he developed a passion for that simplicity in design which characterized all of his later inventions in orthodontic mechanisms. At his mother's request he apprenticed himself to a dentist, a family friend, and at the end of one year entered the Pennsylvania College of Dentistry from which he graduated in the spring of 1876, after an attendance of about eighteen months a far cry from the six years of training required to educate a dentist today.

Being at heart an inventor, the field of general dentistry offered little at that time for one interested in original mechanical investigation. Although the dental curriculum permitted only two lectures in orthodontia, Angle became keenly interested in the subject and even then had visions that some day he might be able to devote his time exclusively to it. In 1880 he invented his "first real appliance" the jack and traction screw which marked the beginning of his life work.

In 1885 at the age of thirty Dr. Angle was appointed to the chair of orthodontia at the University of Minnesota where he began the attempt to bring order out of orthodontic chaos. After ten or twelve years in this and other schools he proved to his own satisfaction what he believed all of his life to be a scientific truth, viz: "That Nature through her own power strives to build the human denture in accordance with a well-defined pattern which we call the normal pattern and varies only as each human being varies from every other human-and that the establishment of normal occlusion of the teeth should be the highest aim of the orthodontist." In 1892 he gave up general practice and became the first man to specialize in the teaching and practice of orthodontia. For years he tried to teach orthodontia in the dental schools as part of the dental curriculum but found that it was a waste of both his and the students' time. In 1900 he opened his first private school for the teaching of orthodontia. This was in St. Louis and among his early students were Dewey, Pullen, Mershon, McCoy, Oppenheim, Weinberger, Fred Noyes and a host of others whose names have been familiar in orthodontia for the last half-century. In 1907 Dr. Angle moved the school to New York and in 1908 to New London, Connecticut, where it held regular sessions until 1911. It was here that he gave up the practice of orthodontia and devoted himself to study, teaching, and the development of better and more refined orthodontic appliances.

In 1916 Dr. and Mrs. Angle decided to make their permanent home in California where they could avoid the hardships of the Eastern winters. He felt that he had given enough of his life to teaching in addition to which his physician had told him that his life expectancy was not great. He planned to spend the remainder of his life in the revision of Malocclusion of the Teeth and in the development of newer and more efficient orthodontic mechanisms.

About a year after they were settled in their new home in Pasadena, a young man by the name of James Angle [no relation] called upon them. The young man had recently completed one of Dewey's courses in San Francisco and wished to meet the man whose name he bore and who was known as the father of his chosen profession. He stayed a year, and finally he too made his home in California. This was the beginning of the Edward H. Angle College of Orthodontia in California.

The first classes in the new school were small, limited to three students, which was the capacity of the room in the Angle home set aside as a combined laboratory and study. This room is reproduced in detail in the department of orthodontics at the University of Illinois.** From this little room came men whose names are familiar to all of you, Atkinson, Stallard, Linn, Wilkinson from Australia, and others, some of whom are no longer with us. Feeling that the opportunity so freely given them should be made available to a greater number, the men who had completed the course approached Dr. Angle with a plan to build a school building on the lot he owned adjoining his property. No funds were solicited but each student assumed the responsibility of donating the fee for his twentieth case toward the building fund. The first class entered the new school in 1922. To help in the teaching, those who had previously completed the course spent a portion of their time at the school. The last class was accepted in 1925 when this class graduated Dr. Angle felt the strain of teaching was too great to continue further and the school was closed. The building is still there, in outward appearance the same, but after Dr. Angle's death the interior was remodeled as a home for Mother Angle.

There is no figure in history whose memory could have lived had it rested only on the personal relationships with others of the same generation. We do not remember Martin Luther or Abraham Lincoln in the true physical sense. What makes us akin to them lies in the bond we feel through the principles and ideals they taught and stood for.

We are not here today as students of a man we are perpetuating this organization as a group that believes in the idealism which Angle held and taught and lived. This ideal was perfection, perfection not only in the basic mechanics which enter into an orthodontist's daily work, but perfection in everything a man thinks and lives and does, and if there is any place for us in history it will be because we have hitched our wagon to this star.

Each of us has a certain potential and each was chosen a member of this society because a majority of the group believed that his ideals met the standards of the organization. You and only you know whether or not you are living up to your potential. You will shoot no higher than you aim, so raise your sights a little and never forget that perfection is the ultimate goal. Although you may never reach it, the closer you approach it, the greater will be the feeling of contentment in your own soul. A man's own conscience, after all, is his most formidable critic.

It is interesting to note that wherever Angle conducted a school those who had completed the course more or less spontaneously organized themselves into what today would be called continuation study groups. These eventually became official societies with officers, bylaws and the rest of the organizational details that every society feels is essential to its progress and permanence. The graduates of Dr. Angle's first school in St. Louis, in 1900, organized the world's first orthodontic society, the official name being "The Society of Orthodontists". In 1902 the word "American" was added and it became "The American Society of Orthodontists". This society of eleven men was the embryo which has developed into the present American Association of Orthodontists, now a representative group of some fifteen hundred members. It is interesting to us that this first orthodontic society established a quarterly magazine known as "The American Orthodontist". It was financed by a contribution of one hundred dollars from each member of the organization-a considerable amount in those days.

In 1909 the graduates of the New York and New London schools formed a society and named it the Eastern Association of Graduates of the Angle School of Orthodontia. There were sixteen charter members. This society conducted regular meetings for thirty years. In 1939, feeling that their mission had been accomplished they voted to adjourn "sine die." During the course of its existence this society had as many as sixty-six members.

In 1913 Dr. Angle was invited by a group of his former students practicing on the Pacific Coast to give a two-day clinic on what was then his latest appliance, the Pin and Tube, or as he liked to call it, a "Bone Growing Appliance." This was the first official gathering of Angle graduates west of the Mississippi and after the completion of the course they decided to form a permanent organization which they named "The Pacific Coast Society of Graduates of the Angle School". In 1917 the eligibility requirements for membership were broadened and the name of the society was changed to the Pacific Coast Society of Orthodontists, and as such it has become a component of the American Association of Orthodontists.

By 1922 there were sufficient graduates of the Pasadena School to form a working organization and the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontia was born, with a membership of eleven graduates of that school supplemented by a few graduates of the schools in St. Louis and New London. Among the latter were Dr. Strang of Bridgeport, Drs. Wilson and Smith of Pasadena, Dr. Frank Gough of Brooklyn, and Dr. Frederick B. Noyes of Chicago. This society met regularly, its membership being supplemented by graduates of the annual classes in Pasadena. At the time of Dr. Angle's death in 1930 there were forty-six members. This society was unique in many ways there were no officers, save a secretary, and there were no bylaws. Like the school, the society was run by Angle and woe to him who dared voice a contrary opinion. The meeting of this society held in New London, Connecticut in June of 1928 was the last meeting that Dr. Angle ever attended. With his passing the society as such ceased to exist.

On Monday, November 17, 1930, twenty-two of the members of the former Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontia met at the Lake Shore Athletic Club in Chicago. The purpose of the meeting as expressed by the chairman was, "to find some way to carry forward Dr. Angle's ideals of Orthodontia." It was decided to reorganize the society which was functioning at the time of Dr. Angle's passing. A central organization was set up with four component societies, the Eastern, Midwestern, Northern California and Southern California. The Northwest component was accepted as such in March 1947.

It was at this meeting in 1930 that The Angle Orthodontist was born. Mrs. Angle was named Editor-in-Chief, and Dr. Frank Gough of Brooklyn was appointed Business Manager. The first official address before this society was given by Charles Tweed, his subject, "The History and Revision of the Arizona Law." The first scientific paper was presented by Allan Brodie, his subject, "The New Mechanism." Since its organization there have been ten meetings of the Central Body: 1930-Chicago, 1932-Pasadena, 1936-Del Monte, California, 1938- New York 1939 - Chicago, 1947 - Santa Barbara, 1949 -French Lick, Indiana, 1951-Sky Top, Pennsylvania, 1953-Victoria, B.C. Due to the interference of World War II no meetings were held between 1939 and 1947. There were forty-six charter members including Dr. and Mrs. Angle, and Professor Wuerpel. Twenty-one of the practicing members were graduates of Dr. Angle's schools prior to the formation of the college in Pasadena and twenty-three were graduates of the College in Pasadena. Of the forty-six charter members only twenty-nine are on the rolls of the society today.

As of this writing the society has one hundred and eighty-six regular members and sixty-four affiliate members, a total of two hundred and fifty. From this, one can see that the actual physical touch of Angle influences but a small percentage of our present membership. Roughly fifty percent of our growth has occurred in the last eight years. For the years between 1939 and 1947 the increase in membership was negligible these were the war years and our younger men were serving in the armed forces. In this connection it might be advisable for the society to pause and take stock, as it were, of this matter of increasing membership. Indeed, several of the components have already begun such scrutiny. If we are to emulate the ideals of Angle we must remain a working society. He had no time for sloths. One of the requirements for membership could well be that the candidate have something to offer for what he receives. The fact that a man is a good clinical orthodontist should not in itself be sufficient to warrant his becoming a member of the family.

Now what have we as a society accomplished these past twenty-five years to justify our existence? What has been our contribution to orthodontia? In Education? In Research? In Clinical Practice?


With the closing of the college in Pasadena there was little opportunity open to those who were seeking a thorough orthodontic training. Foreseeing this need and realizing that there would be such a demand, Dr. Frederick B. Noyes, one of Dr. Angle's earlier students and then Dean of the dental school of the University of Illinois, persuaded Allan Brodie to accept the challenge and appointed him chairman of the department, giving him free rein in the organization of a graduate division of orthodontics. Dr. Brodie was a member of the last class in the Pasadena school and I am happy to have this opportunity to read to you from Mother Angle's story of the California school: "The last class was the one which included a man whose name in orthodontia will never die. You all know him, you all honor him, and I am sure that you will all agree with me that if it had not been for Dr. Brodie's sacrificial taking up of the torch where Dr. Angle laid it down, orthodontia would-well where would the science have been today?"

At the University of Illinois the discipline, the vision and the idealism of Dr. Angle have been maintained as nowhere else in the world. As of this writing there are twenty-eight graduates of this school teaching in thirteen dental colleges in the United States and seven in six foreign countries. Thus as these teachers train others in their own schools and as future generations of teachers succeed them the influence of Angle goes on. Although the personal touch may wear off, it is to be hoped that the bright shield of idealism will never be allowed to tarnish. As we observe them now, into the fourth generation, we can be proud of their influence on orthodontic teaching and practice

Of the more than two hundred and fifty members of this society, both regular and affiliate, seventy hold teaching appointments. Two are Deans of dental schools in State universities, nine hold administrative appointments such as chairmen of departments, chiefs of staff, or directors of graduate courses, and fifty-nine hold teaching positions ranking from full professorships down to the lowest rung of the academic ladder. In addition to those who are associated with regularly established dental schools we must recognize the influence of men who have acted as preceptors as well as others who have been responsible for short intensive courses in specialized subjects they have helped many men to a better understanding of the requirements of modern orthodontia. There are many among our members who have engaged in such activities but the one who has contributed the most in time and energy over the years is Bob Strang.

Future progress in orthodontia will be due to improvement in thinking rather than in mechanics. The requirements for thinking are brains, education and desire, therefore the members of this society should, whenever and wherever possible, take advantage of the opportunities that are offered today to associate themselves with schools interested in graduate instruction. I am sure you will find a warm welcome. The resolution recently adopted by the American Association of Orthodontists, raising the requirements for membership to a minimum of fifteen hundred hours of graduate or post-graduate study or its equivalent, will force many of the dental schools to reorganize their departments. The opportunity will be there if we are only willing to make the sacrifice. You can rest assured that the reward will be worth the effort.


From the the time of Chapin A. Harris, to the formation of this society, a matter of some ninety-odd years, research in orthodontia was largely a matter of improvement in orthodontic appliances and methods of moving teeth. Although there were numerous investigators and investigations in the field of facial and cranial development, etiology of malocclusion and other subjects that had a bearing on orthodontic procedures, these were in large measure a matter of expounding certain preconceived theories based upon personal opinion rather than upon scientific data as we recognize it today.

The introduction of the cephalometer by Broadbent in 1931 has placed orthodontic research on a sound scientific basis, and has for the first time made possible the accurate study of the growing child. This extraordinarily fruitful contribution has in the few short years of its life amply demonstrated its value to orthodontia. First introduced as a research instrument, it has now become a valuable supplement to plaster models and intraoral roentgenograms in clinical practice. The value of serial headfilms was quickly realized by the better thinkers in the profession and this society can be proud of the contribution of its members. Broadbent's original work on the "Face of the Normal Child" and Brodie's classic "On the Growth Pattern of the Human Head from the 3rd Month to the 8th Year of Life" were among the earliest contributions. These were followed by Down's "Variations in Facial Relationships," Thompson's work on the "Functional Analysis of Occlusion," Wylie's "Assessment of Anteroposterior Dysplasia," and Margolis' "Basic Facial Pattern and its Application in Clinical Orthodontics." Later came Alton Moore, Bob Ricketts, Tom Graber, and many others until at the present time orthodontic research can be truthfully said to be on a par with that of any of the allied healing sciences. Continuing progress in orthodontic research will come from the younger men and they must be the kind of men described by Angle in the announcement of the Pasadena School: "What we want, what orthodontia sorely needs, are earnest, honest, studious young men of energy, ambition and initiative, and possessed (above all else) of the ability to reason."


As with research and teaching, the improvements in the quality of clinical practice in the last twenty-five years far surpass the efforts of all of the previous years since the regulating of teeth was first attempted. We of the older generation, who were in practice before 1930, shudder when we go through our earlier records and examine some of the cases we presented with pride. As I scan the roster of the Angle Society, I see the names of the finest clinical orthodontists the world has ever known, men whose excellence of clinical performance is surpassed by none. What has made them worthy of such a statement? Surely not the mere placing of appliances and the development of a charming personality. Men with such limited qualifications can be found in any city or hamlet in the country. It is the desire of "well-trained intelligent minds and well-disciplined fingers" to produce nothing short of the best. It is the result of improved teaching and the application of modern research to clinical practice.

It is an amazing commentary on the competence of our members that one may refer a patient to an orthodontist in a distant city merely by referring to the roster of the Society, secure in the knowledge that he or she will receive good care.

Space and time do not permit naming all those who have contributed to the teaching and progress in clinical orthodontics, however, I cannot refrain from mentioning one whose effort we all recognize. There is no one in this society or in the field of orthodontics who has contributed more in "sweat and tears" to maintain and advance the Angle standards of clinical teaching and practice than has Charles Tweed. I am sure some of you do not subscribe to his theories of treatment but there are hundreds of men in the profession today who have become better men and more competent orthodontists because of his example and his teachings. There are a host of others who have contributed to a lesser extent, each according to his potential and his ability Hayes Nance, the Terwilliger brothers, Robert Murray, Reed Holdaway, Emory Fraser, Roscoe Keedy, to name but a few.

There are no doubt some outside this organization who feel that the men in the Angle Society are over-rated as clinical orthodontists. To these I suggest a visit to the display room of the American Board of Orthodontics, which is part of the annual meeting of the American Association of Orthodontists and in which is exhibited by invitation each year, the best of the previous year's cases. You will be proud of the work of our younger members. In passing I might add that the American Board of Orthodontics is to be commended for its efforts to advance the standards of orthodontic practice and promote original research. It is fully deserving of our unqualified support. An American Board diploma should hang in the office of every eligible member of this Society and we could in the future well consider this as one of the aims of the Angle Society.

Before leaving the subject of clinical orthodontics, I want to insert one word of caution. There is a developing tendency in orthodontia today to reduce the child to a common average. The abuse of cephalometric analysis and preconceived ideas of what constitutes a well-balanced face and the attempt to fit every face regardless of size, form or inherited characteristics to that pattern is in large measure responsible for this attitude. The child is an individual and should be evaluated as such rather than attempting to fit him to a common mold. This requires more from an orthodontist than the ability to compare photographs, make tracings, read angles, and use numbers as a basis for an orthodontic diagnosis or to fashion appliances for the movement of teeth.


The Angle Orthodontist was established and brought into being by action of this society in 1930 as a living memorial to Dr. Angle. For seventeen years it was the only publication devoted exclusively to orthodontia. The present journal of the American Association of Orthodontists was originally known as the American Journal of Orthodontia and Oral Surgery and until 1948 was the official organ for both specialties. I would like to recall, and it may be of interest to our younger members to know that in 1937 discussions were held with the American Association of Orthodontists relative to The Angle Orthodontist becoming the official organ of that body. No mutual agreement could be reached and the matter was dropped.

As a scientific publication The Angle Orthodontist is preeminent, outstanding in its field. The quality of the material have made it a magazine sought after by students and research workers both here and abroad, where it commands the greatest respect. The fact that it has never had to resort to the acceptance of advertising in its pages has allowed a flexibility of policy by the editors and business manager enjoyed by few other publications. This has been possible only through sacrifice on the part of those who have acted in these capacities, as well as through the financial generosity of our members.

Since the Journal was established we have been blessed with the following editors:

1930- 1936 Robert Strang
1936-1949 Harold Noyes
1949-1953 Wendell Wylie
1953-1955 Arthur Lewis and Morse Newcomb, joint editors.

These men have given freely of their time, energy and ability to make of The Angle Orthodontist the successful publication that it is today and of which this society and all orthodontists may well be proud.

During this past quarter of a century we have had only two business managers: Frank Gough, who served from 1930 to 1937, and Si Kloehn, who has held the position for the past eighteen years. Dr. Gough organized the financing of the Journal on a sound basis. During the first few years, when the number of subscribers as well as the society membership was small, the going was at times rugged. When Dr. Kloehn took over, the Journal was financially in good shape. I want at this time to express to Dr. Kloehn and his wife, Irma, not only my personal appreciation but that of the entire society for the truly magnificent job he has done as business manager. There is no scientific publication today of which the business-side has been conducted in a more ethical manner, with greater consideration for the editors, subscribers, contributors and printers, than has The Angle Orthodontist under the direction of Si Kloehn. We cannot be too generous in our gratitude.


What is the glue, the cementing substance, the bond that brings and holds the members of the society together? Several months ago, I wrote twelve members of this society and asked them two questions. First, why should there be an Angle Society? Second, what does the Angle Society mean to you? These men were selected from among our oldest as well as from our youngest members, from the East and from the West. I wish I could read their letters, but I promised them that their replies would not be made public. Some of them could not express their feelings in words. It was akin to asking a man what faith in God meant to him. I will try to give you a composite interpretation of the replies. "The Angle Society should continue to live because it means there is an ideal over and above the average that is worth living and striving to attain. There is in the society a fellowship, not as the word is commonly used, but a fellowship in which there is no selfishness, no jealousy, no deceit, but an honesty of purpose in which every man is held in that esteem which gives him a feeling of pride tempered by humility. It offers an opportunity for the full and open exchange of knowledge and ideas eagerly offered with nothing held back. It takes one out of the realm and routine of mediocrity which is so common today and into a standard of conduct which makes living and working a pleasure. There is an inspiration that comes from personal contact with men whose object is not self-glorification but a willingness to give freely of what they have learned with only the thought of helping others. It is the maintenance of the ideal of perfection which in our profession originated with Angle and which is rapidly disappearing in the philosophy of present day living and thinking. In the Angle Society there is a feeling of pride in the accomplishments of, or the honors bestowed on a fellow member which creates in each of us a desire to become better orthodontists ourselves."

There is an often used and much abused quotation from Emerson's essay on Self-Reliance, "An institution is the lengthened shadow of a single man." No truer words than these could be applied to the Angle Society, but this society cannot, must not expect to live on memory or tradition. Something more than these must be our inspiration. These can impose fetters that could bind us and keep us down, yet they also can act as a foundation and stimulation to progress in the future. The music of Bach and Mozart would have been dead forever were it not for the living artists who are perpetually reviving their melodies. Pasteur and Koch would have lived in vain but for the every day practitioners through whose activities their teachings are made effective.

The founder of this society set a course that was true and no matter what the temptation or the pressure we must not deviate from it. It is inconceivable that difficulties do not lie ahead. There almost surely will be disappointments and set-backs.

The path leading toward the goal of perfection is not a four-lane highway it is narrow and tortuous and those who have the fortitude to venture upon it must be wary of the crossroads. I am not suggesting that we all attempt to follow the same route. Each must choose his own, for if we live only by imitation we will become as stereotyped as the letters on a typewriter. There will be no new discoveries, no inspiration to adventure into the unknown and progress will cease.

In one of his many philosophical appearances before an Angle Society meeting, Professor Wuerpel made the following statement: "Where conditions are fixed there is no progress. Every new scientific discovery carries in its wake innumerable and undreamed changes. These changes must be met with a flexible philosophy of life, but also we must never forget that fundamentals remain fixed."

We are much too prone in this great and wealthy country of ours to settle back and feel that the mere contribution of money will make for progress. That, my friends, is the easy way out-the side road of the slacker. Were it only a matter of money The Angle Orthodontist could, for the asking, set the standard for the world's scientific publications. Its shelves would be piled high with manuscripts awaiting publication. Real progress comes from the inner urge in a man to do something different, something better than has ever been done before, and this requires both effort and sacrifice.

This society has not sought to assert leadership in the field of orthodontics leadership does not come for the seeking. Leadership comes to an organization such as this, if it comes at all, because of the devotion of the individuals in that group to maintain a standard above the average. If we have achieved such a position in the profession, and in all modesty I believe we have, there goes with it the responsibility not only to maintain the standards which we have set but to raise them still higher. That responsibility now is shared with the younger men in the organization. That they will meet this challenge rests on the inner urge in each of them to carry on to the full extent of his ability. They are being tried and I am sure they will not be found wanting. What we have accomplished in the past twenty-five years justifies our strong dedication to the principles upon which this society was founded and which alone can bring about the results which we seek. The opportunity of serving this society is one of the greatest privileges orthodontia has to offer. May those of us who now enjoy that privilege as well as those we may welcome in the future, never forget Angle's ideal of perfection which is so characteristically expressed in the motto by which he lived and which hung on the wall of the school in Pasadena, "There is but one best way."

* The Society officially changed its name to the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists in 1967.

** Dr. Angle's Pasadena workroom is now a permanent exhibit in the History of Medicine Division at the Smithsonian Museum of Science and Technology, Washington, D.C.

Edward H Allen DE- 531 - History


Halfmoon occupies a part of the southeastern corner of the county. It is bounded on the north by Malta and Stiliwater, on the east by the east bounds of the county, on the south by Waterford and the south line of the county, and on the west by Clifton Park. The Revised Statutes define the town as follows:

The town of Halfmoon shall contain all that part of said county bounded northerly by Anthony's Kill, easterly by the east bounds of the county, southerly by Waterford and the south bounds of the county, and westerly by a line beginning at the outlet of Round Lake then running south to the east side of William Gates' grist mill then southerly through the centre of the mill pond across the bridge over said pond then southerly to the west side of Joseph Merrill's dwelling house then south to the Van Schaick line, then along said line to the Mohawk river, varying the same at the dwelling house of Ephraim Stevens so as to leave the same on the west side of the line.

The surface is undulating and contains several small streams running in places through narrow ravines. The eastern section, extending along the river bank, is fiat and fertile, as is most of the land. Anthony's creek and Dwaas' kill flow into the Hudson, and Steena kill into the Mohawk. The Erie canal passes through the western half of the southern part of the town, running nearly parallel to the Mohawk river. The Champlain canal traverses the eastern part of the town from north to south. The Delaware & Hudson Canal company's railroad runs nearly parallel with this canal, and east of it, from Waterford to Mechanicville, running thence in a westerly direction about parallel with the north line of the town. The Fitchburg railroad also extends westerly from Mechanicville nearly parallel with the northern line of the town.

The earliest settlements in Halfmoon located on the banks of the Mohawk about 1680. Killiaen Vandenburgh built a home near Dunsbach's Ferry in 1718. The earliest building in Mechanicville doubtless was Gates's tavern. Henry Bailey had a tavern about a mile below, near the river, soon after the Revolution, perhaps earlier. Shiibael Cross had another at Middletown before the Revolution.

Mechanicville is the principal village in Halfmoon. It lies partly in the northeast corner of the town and partly in Stillwater. It is a manufacturing and railroad centre of considerable importance. Here are located large shops of the Delaware & Hudson and the Fitchburg railroads, the immense plant of the Duncan company, manufacturers of fine paper two large sash and blind factories, two large brick kilns, four knitting mills, a shirt factory, important lumber yards, a factory for manufacturing electrical goods, and other manufactures. The Duncan company is supplied with power principally from a dam across the Hudson river, In 1897 and 1898 a second large dam was erected in the Hudson for the development of power for transmission to the works of the General Electric company at Schenectady, about fifteen miles away. The electric current will be transmitted from Mechanicville to Schenectady by heavy insulated wires. The village has excellent railroad facilities, including, beside the steam roads mentioned, an electric line between Mechanicville and Stiliwater. A line extending southward and connecting with Troy and Albany is in course of construction, and plans are being made for an extension to Saratoga Springs. The school system has undergone great improvements in recent years, and two new school buildings are soon to be constructed. There are five churches in the village-Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal and Roman Catholic. There are also a Masonic lodge, and Odd Fellows lodge, three social clubs and several other fraternal organizations. It also has a well organized and equipped fire department. Mechanicville was not incorporated by law as a village until 1870. It was chartered by the County Court in July, 1859, and at the first election, September 10, following, ninety-five votes were cast. These trustees were elected: Cyrus Gilbert, Stephen Burtis, Lewis Smith, Job G. Viall, A. A. Buckhout. The board of trustees elected Lewis Smith chairman and William P. Harris clerk. Until 1870 the chief executive officer of the village was the chairman or president of the board of trustees. These officers were:

1859, Lewis Smith 1862, William Clements 1863, Lyman Dwight 1864, Isaac M. Smith 1865, John W. Ensign 1866, John Elmer 1867, John C. Greene 1868, John C. Greene (removed from village and succeeded by Alonzo Howland) 1869, Lewis E. Smith 1870, William W. Smith.

In 1870 the State Legislature granted a new charter for the village, when these officers were elected by the people direct:

President, William W. Smith trustees, William Johnson, Newton H. Ballou, William M. Warren, Charles Wheeler clerk, J. Frank Terry treasurer, Richard Richards collector, Michael Short.

The following is a complete list of the village presidents since the incorporation of Mechanicville:

1871, William W. Smith 1872-78, Lewis E. Smith 1879, Newton H. Ballou 1880, John C. Greene 1881, Charles Wheeler 1882, J. Frank Terry 1883. Daniel E. La Dow 1884, George R. Moore 1885-86, George E. Lockwood 1887, Obadiah Tompkins 1888-89, William W. Smith 1890, Edward H. Strang 1891, John C. Greene 1892, William C. Tailmadge 1893, Herbert 0. Bailey 1894, John H. Massey 1895, Albert H. Barnes 1896, Hiram B. Mace 1.97, Emmons A. Starks 1898, William H. Allen.

There are five hamlets in Halfmoon. Newton is located about two miles southwest of Mechanicville Smithtown about two miles south of Newton Clifton Park west of the centre of the town near the Clifton Park town line Crescent just north of the great bend in the Mohawk and Middletown about a mile easterly from Crescent. The First Baptist church of Halfmoon, located at Middletown, organized in 1835, succeeded the Baptist church at Newtown, long since extinct. The Second Baptist church of Halfmoon, at Clifton Park, was founded in 1841, the M. E. church at Smithtown about 1870, the M. E. church at Crescent in 1852, the Reformed Protestant Dutch church of Middletown (now extinct) in 1791, and the M. E. church at Coon's Crossing about 1858.

Half moon was one of the original districts of Saratoga county, the other being Saratoga. In 1816 Waterford was set off, the name of Halfmoon then becoming Orange. The old name was restored in 1820. Clifton Park was taken off in 1828. The district of Halfmoon was organized as a part of Albany county in 1772, as a town of Albany county in 1788, and as a town as at present constituted in 1828. In the following list of supervisors, those serving from 1788 to 1828 came from various parts of the old town:

1788-90, Jacobus Van Schoonhoven 1791, Benjamin Rosekrans 1792-94, Richard Davis, jr. 1795-1800, Benjamin Rosekrans 1801-17, Zebulon Mott 1818-20, Nathan Garnsey 1821-27, David Garnsey 1828-37, Asahel Philo 1838-39, Isaac Smith 1840, Platt Smith 1841, Chauncey Boughton 1842-43, Abraham Travis 1844-45, William Chute 1846, Benjamin S. Cowles 1847, David W. Wait: 1848, Lucius M. Smith 1849-50, James Noxon 1851-52, Stephen Emigh 1853-54, Benjamin Wait 1855, Shubael Taylor 1856-57, Thomas Noxon 1858. Nehemiah Philo 1859, William Cary 1860-61, Thomas Noxon 1862-63, C. J. Warrington 1864-66, Thomas Noxon 1867, John C. Greene 1868, Charles H. Clute 1869, Henry L. Haight 1870-71, M. 0. Caldwell 1872-73, Daniel R. White 1874, Jacob C. Defreest1 1875- 76, Charles H. Clute 1877-78. Henry L. Haight 1879-82, George Rogers 1883, Peter Smith 1884-85, Cornelius R. Sheffer 1886-87. Edward L. Haight 1888-89, Melbourn H. Van Voorhees 1890, Silas Hayner 1891-97, Henry D. Saford 1898, George H. Whitney.

The town clerks have been:

1788-90, Jacob Fort 1791-18 18, Abraham Moe 1819-21, Asahel Philo 1822, Ephraim Stevens 1823-31. Benjamin I. Hall 1832, Nicholas Emigh, jr. 1833-35, John P. Steenburgh 1836-37, Robert Forbes 1838-39, Chauncey Boughton 1840-43, Nicholas E. Phio 1844-45, Nehemiah Phio 1846, Henry L. Landon 1847, Aaron A. Knight 1848, Isaac Clements 1849, James T. Wiley 1850, Lyman W. Clements 1851-53, L. B. Schermerhorn 1854-55, Selafi Knight 1856, Warren Rulison 1857-59, C. J. Warrington 1860, Henry Lape 1861-62, Daniel R. White 1863, Martin Sherman 1864-67, Warren Rulison 1868, M. 0. Caidwell 1869, James H. Clark 1870, Jacob A. West 1871, Warren Rulison 1872-73, Jacob C. Defreest 1874-75, S. S. Teachout 1876-77, Henry Clark 1878-82, J. Frank Terry 1883-85, Edward L. Haight 1886-90, William G. Davry 1891-93, Norman W. Kelso 1894- 98, William T. Moore.

The justices of the peace elected by the people have been:

1831, William Fowler 1832, William Clute 1833, Stephen Varnum (or Vernam) 1834, Asahel Phio 1835, William Fowler 1836, Nathan A. Philo 1837, Stephen Vernam 1838, Benjamin S. Curtis 1839, James Noxie 1840. Nathan A. Philo 1841. James V. Bradshaw 1842, Stephen H. Sherman 1843, Lewis E. Smith 1844, Nathan A. Philo 1845, David W. Wait 1846, B. S. Cowles 1847, Moses Clements 1848, Eldert I. Van Woert 1849, .D. W. Wait 1850, Samuel A. House 1851, John R. McGregor 1852, Abram Sickles 1853, D. W. Wait 1854. Charles H. Fowler 1855, William Ostrander, John 0. Mott 1856, Selah Knight 1857, William Hicks, Henry I. Dunsbach, Deodatus W. Hurd 1858, Harmon J. .Quackenbush 1859, Nathan Tabor 1860, Abram Sickles 1861, Samuel R. Mott 1862, Melvin Van Voorhees 1863, H. J. Quackenbush 1864, Nathan F. Phio 1865, Charles E. Dillingham, Smith L. Mitchell 1866, James Clark 1867, Charles E. Gorsline, William Hicks 1868, Selab Knight 1869. Charles E. Dillingham 1870, Melvin Van Voorhees 1871, Charles E. Gorsline, Charles E. Dillingham 1872, Selah Knight 1878, William A. P. Cassidy 1874, Melvin Van Voorhees 1875, William L. Potter 1876, Selah Knight 1877, William A. T. Cassidy 1878, Henry Clark 1879, William C. Tailmadge 1880, Selah Knight 1881, William A. T. Cassidy 1882, Henry Clark (long term), William A. Mansfield (short term) 1883, William C. Tailmadge 1884, James A. Knight 1885, William A. T. Cassidy (long term), George W. Porter (short term) 1886, Fred I. Steenberg 1887, Charles E. Hicks 1888, George W. Porter 1889, William A. T. Cassidy (long term), David P. Smith (short term) 1890, Fred L Steenberg 1891, Nicholas Steenberg 1892, John E. Thomson 1893, John Baker 1894, F. I. Steenberg 1895, David F. Smith 1896, John E. Thomson 1897, William A. P. Cassidy 1898, F. I. Steenberg.

Edward H. Inman, Jr. oral history transcription

The Edward H. Inman Jr. Oral History Transcription, conducted by Atlanta History Center staff members Bill Bomar and Andy Ambrose in May 1997, includes Inman’s early memories of the house, its furnishings, and events that occurred while he lived there. Relatives Louise Richardson Allen and Suzanne Inman also participated in the interview, interjecting their memories at appropriate times.

Topics covered include the construction of Swan House, his father’s cars and automobile racing, servants, furniture placement, the death and funeral of Edward H. Inman, Sr., prohibition, and entertaining in the house. Lacking are family anecdotes and insight into family personalities and relationships. This transcription was created from audio cassette tapes identified as CT 517 and CT 518.



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Administrative/Biographical History

Edward Hamilton Inman, Jr., the second son of Edward H. Inman (1881-1931) and Emily Caroline MacDougald Inman (1881-1965), was born on April 20, 1912. He spent his childhood at the family’s first home in Ansley Park and moved with his family to their newly built home, Swan House, in the Buckhead neighborhood in 1928. After attending boarding school in Baltimore, he graduated from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1934.

He worked for Coca-Cola, and served in the United States Navy during World War II. He was married three times first, he married Barbara Rainsford, who died in 1964. His second wife, Sue Bradley, died in 1969, and Nancy Brown Inman, his third wife, survives him. He lived in Naples, Florida and Santa Barbara, California, where he died on February 9, 1999.

Edward H Allen DE- 531 - History

The captains listed below sailed into and out of the Port of San Francisco during the mid-to-late 1800s. During 1849 and 1850 alone, more than 600 Captains sailed from Eastern seaport towns into San Francisco Bay. Many of the Captains lived in San Francisco and many also made their home in Oakland or Contra Costa County during the late 1800s.

(Note: The * indicates that these Captains were listed in the San Francisco Directory.)

*Herman Ackerman, 2717-1/2 Mission Street, San Francisco
*Robert Ackerman, 9 Madison Avenue, San Francisco
E. H. Ackley
H. S. Ackley
Captain Adams
*Charles H. Aitken, 33 Washington Avenue, San Francisco
Captain Alexander
*James G. Allen, 1314-22nd, San Francisco
*Antonio Alves, 727 Broadway Street, San Francisco
*Jabez A. Amesbury, 710 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco
Captain Amy
*Andrew Anderson, 1124 Stevenson Street, San Francisco
*Frank A. Anderson, 17 Perry, San Francisco
*Frederick Anderson, 1128-1/2 Howard Street, San Francisco
*Henry Anderson, 121 Francisco, San Francisco
*William Anderson, 320 1/4 Ritch Street, San Francisco
Ole Anfindsen, Folsom Street, San Francisco
George Ankers, 754 Bryant Street, San Francisco
Henry Anson, 1133 Union Street, San Francisco
*Captain Auguay
*Richard Austin, 415 East, San Francisco
*Elihu Avery, 1437 Steiner, San Francisco

F. R. Baby
*Charles Backus, 230 Francisco, San Francisco
A. Bacon
*Charles A. F. Bahn, 906 Filbert, San Francisco
*James G. Baker, Pacific St. Wharf, San Francisco
Captain M. T. Bailey
John G. Baker
W. W. Baker
*John W. Balch, 528 Ellis, San Francisco
Captain C. H. Baldwin
*Edward A. Barfred, 531 Grove Street, San Francisco
Captain Barnard
*William H. Barr, 1011 Union Street, San Francisco
William Jackson Barry
Captain Barstow
Lt. Edward F. Beal
Moses Thurston Bean
*Samuel B. Beck, 1721 Jones, San Francisco
*John H. Behrens, 612 Jessie, San Francisco
*William C. Behrens, N.S. Caselli Avenue near Rose, San Francisco
*Christopher A. Bell, 45-1/2 Federal, San Francisco
John H. Bell
*Conrad Benfeldt, N.S. Hale near Merrill
*John Bennett, 1432 Dolores Street, San Francisco
*William Bennett, 818 Jessie Street, San Francisco
Ernest Bent
Lt. Bissell
Captain Blackburn, The Montserret
*Daniel W. Blanchard, 1708 Turk Street, San Francisco
Blethens in San Francisco during the 1800s
Clement P. Blethen
James H. Blethen
James H. Blethen, Jr., 512 Devisadero Street, San Francisco (Divisadero Street)
John C. Blethen
*Gustave Bluhm, 214 Steuart Street, San Francisco
William Bluhm, 1413 Bush Street, San Francisco
Lieutenant S.F. Blunt
W. M. Blye
J. Bodfish
*Russell S. Bodfish, 423 Tenth Street, San Francisco
*Gerhardt Boese, 124 Eugenia Street, San Francisco
*Henry Boettcher, 320 Drumm Street, San Francisco
*Frederick H. Boie, 23-1/2 Twenty-Second Street, San Francisco
*Morton Bondegard, 1731 Jessie Street, San Francisco
John Bone, 1505 Leavenworth Street, San Francisco
*William Borchers, 2 Rincon Court Street, San Francisco
*William Borchers, Jr., 2 Rincon Court 1889, San Francisco
*Hendrick Botcher, 5 Seymour Avenue, San Francisco
J. Bottom
Charles C. Boudrow
F. Bourne
*George W. Boyd, 113 Cumberland Street, San Francisco
Charles Boyle
*Hansen Boysen, 609 1/2 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
*John Brannan, 54 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
N. A. Bray
Charles J. Brenham
Captain Brewster
Captain Brieholm
*Martin Brigman
*Albert Brown, 503 Filbert Street, San Francisco
*Charles Brown, office, 405 Front Street, San Francisco
Captain Julian Brown (SS City of Para. Died May 1898)
*Frederick Brown, 426 Hayes Street, San Francisco
*John Brown, 14 Rondell Place, San Francisco
*John W. Brown, 904 Church Street, San Francisco
*William Brown, 716 Bay Street, San Francisco
*Conrad Bruns, The Morgan Oyster Co., 1223 Eddy Street, San Francisco
*Julius F. Bryn, 21 Madison Avenue, San Francisco
Lt. Thomas A. Budd, U.S.N.
H. C. Bunker
Captain Burgess
*William R. Burmeister, office Pier 7, Steuart Street, San Francisco

Map of San Francisco, c.1852
Britton & Rey

*James J. Cabaniss, 1919 Polk Street, San Francisco
*Robert Caldwell, 9 Broadway Street, San Francisco
Captain Caleff
Captain Callahan and Mutiny at Sea
*Michael Canalli, 331-1/2 Union Street, San Francisco
Captain Carlson
Captain Carlton
John Carphin
James Carroll
*Daniel A. Carter, Brooklyn Hotel, Bush Street, San Francisco
Captain Caulfield
William Henry Causer
*John M. Caverly, 1815 Sutter Street, San Francisco
Captain Champion
*James Chapman, 1131 Bush Street, San Francisco
H. Chevalier, RMSS Zealandia
*John Christensen, 38 Fair Oaks Street, San Francisco
*Oliver Christenson, 734 Hayes Street, San Francisco
*Ernest W. Christiansen, 1229 York Street, San Francisco
*Peter Christianson, 621 Third Street, San Francisco
*Robert C. Clark, 6 Clay Street, San Francisco
S. Clark
W. S. Clarke
John Clay
Henry Cleaveland
*Charles Clint, 1028 Pacific Street, San Francisco
William Cobb
*William Colby, 524 1/2 Capp Street, San Francisco
Charles Coffin
H. B. Colbey
D. Colburn
George A. Cole
H. Cole
*Theodore H. Collett, 198 Lombard Street, San Francisco
J. Collier
*Peter Colly, office 18 Howard Street, San Francisco
*James Colman, 318 Brannan Street, San Francisco
*Edward L. Colville, 929 1/2 Jackson Street, San Francisco
E. Cook
*George Cook, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*James Cooper, 575 Minna Street, San Francisco
*William Cornell, 641 Folsom Street, San Francisco
Captain Corwin
Kenny Couillard, Commander SS Winfield Scott, 1852
*William H. Coulson, 11 Clementina Street, San Francisco
Captain Cousins (may be same as Edwin B. Cousins immediately following)
*Edwin B. Cousins, 13 1/2 Washington Avenue, San Francisco
*Peter Crack, 814 Twentieth Street, San Francisco
*John S. Crawford, 322 1/2 Eighteenth Street, San Francisco
Captain Josiah Perkins Creesy (and Eleanor Creesy, Navigator)
*C. H. Crocker, office, 18 Howard Street, San Francisco
*Samuel F. Cromwell, 734 Sixteenth Street, San Francisco
Thomas B. Cropper
B. S. Crosby
Captain Cunningham
*George A. Currie, 614 Mason Street, San Francisco
A. Curtis
*Henry G. Curtis, 414 Capp Street, San Francisco

Christopher C. Dall (brother to Captain W. I. Dall)
Captain W. I. Dall
Timothy Herbert Dame
*George W. David, 628 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco
*James Davidson, 420 Third, San Francisco
*Charles Davis, office 18 Howard Street, San Francisco
*William J. Davis, 519 Bush Street, San Francisco
*Glrard Debney, 917 McAllister Street, San Francisco
Captain DeLaney
*Jullus De Moey, 37 Pacific, San Francisco
A. W. Dennis
*Henry Desslow, 28 South Park
*George Dettmers, 330 1/2 Eighteenth Street, San Francisco
Samuel de Wolf
*William H. Diggs, 732 Capp Street, San Francisco
*Oliver W. Ditson, Arctic Whaling Co., 35 Stanford, San Francisco
*George Dittmers, 330 1/2 Eighteenth Street, San Francisco
Justus Doane
*Adams Dodd, 1309 Guerrero Street, San Francisco
Austin K. Dodge, Schooner Penelope
Thomas Dodge
John M. Dow
Captain Dowd
*Thomas Dowdell, 1217 1/2 Hayes Street, San Francisco
Captain Downes
*Louis Dreysdoffer, 7 Clay (10 De Boom), San Francisco
*Theobald Duebeck, 720 Third Street, San Francisco
*Theobald Duerrbeck, 720 Third Street, San Francisco
C. B. Duggan, Master, Vicar of Bray
Phillip Dumaresq
William Dunham
E. W. Dunn
Captain Durham

*Cyrus A. Eastman, 2 Ewer Place, San Francisco
*William F. Edwards, 114 Hyde Street, San Francisco
*Alexander Edwardson, 431 Vallejo Street, San Francisco
T. Eldridge
William Ellery
J. B. Elwell
*Carl Emerson, 11 Jackson Street, San Francisco
*Albert Erickson, 359 1/2 First Street, San Francisco
*Conrad Erickson, 20 Clementina, San Francisco
*John Errickson, schr Noyo, 23 1/4 South Park, San Francisco
*Damian Espinosa, 1423 Geary Street, San Francisco
*Robert J. Espy, 762 Folsom Street, San Francisco
George T. Estabrooks
*John H. Evans, 124 1/2 Bernard Street, San Francisco
*Alfred Everson, 803 Hyde Street, San Francisco

J. Fairfowl
*Jeremiah W. Farnham, 921 Dolores Street, San Francisco
Capt Farragut, U.S.N.: SS Cortes, September 14, 1854 to Mare Island Naval Base
John S. Farren
Edward Horatio Faucon
*Paul Ferguson, 312 Beale St., San Francisco
J. S. Ferries, The Zealandia 1876
*Frank R. Filberton, 293 Union St., San Francisco
*Peter Fischer, 14 Washington St., San Francisco
Joseph L. Folsom
Cleveland Forbes
*William F. Forsman, 1011 1/2 Pierce St., San Francisco
Obed F. Fosdick
C. J. Fosen
*Charles E. Foye, 831 Fulton St., San Francisco
*Frederick Frederickson, office Pier 7 Steuart Street, San Francisco
F. Freeman, Jr.
Daniel Friele
Charles Stewart Friis

*J. P. Gallagher, 27 Elgin Park Avenue, San Francisco
*John L. Galloup, 932 Howard Street, San Francisco
E.C. Gardiner
Edmund Gardner
Francis W. Gatter
*Ferdinand Gee, 824 Ellis Street, San Francisco
*Charles G. Gielow, 410 Brannan Street, San Francisco
Captain Gifford
*Samuel Gillis, 10 Vincent, San Francisco
*Samuel J. Gilman, 717 Bush Street, San Francisco
Stephen Girard (Eastern Seaboard)
*George M. Gladson, 341 McAllister Street, San Francisco
*August C. Glaser, 135 Clipper Street, San Francisco
C. Gordon
A. B. Gore
Charles A. Gore
*Thomas Golding, 607 Turk Street, San Francisco
*William G. Goodman, 22 Whitney Street, San Francisco
*Andrew B. Goodmanson, 1806 San Carlos Avenue, San Francisco
*Gustave Goodmanson, 609 Harrison Street, San Francisco
C. Gordon
Sydney Gough
*Sewell F. Graves, 701 Shotwell Street, San Francisco
*Charles Gray, 1800 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*Frank Green, 5 Market Street, San Francisco
Herman H. Greene
D. E. Griffith
*Edward D. Griffin, 37 Second, San Francisco
William Griffin
*Thomas H. Griffiths, 34 Liberty Street, San Francisco
*Hans Gullicksen, 744 Fourth, San Francisco

*Frederick Hackmann, 53 Clementina Street, San Francisco
W. H. P. Hains (Haines)
Captain Salisbury Haley
*Charles F. Hall, 29 Ford Street, San Francisco
*Edwin J. Hall, 437 Noe Street, San Francisco
*George T. Hall, 926 Mission Street, San Francisco
*Martin Halverson, 108 Berry Street, San Francisco
A. J. Hamilton (Wild Duck in San Francisco, 1853)
*Charles Hammond, 803 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco
*Alexander Hansen, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*Bernhard Hansen, 440 Second, San Francisco
*Christ Hansen, office Pier 7 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*Christopher Hansen, 2 Midway Street, San Francisco
*Hans Hansen, 37 Pacific Street, San Francisco
*Hans E. Hansen, 2018 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*Henning Hansen, 760 Bryant Street, San Francisco
*John Hansen, 2922 Pine Street, San Francisco
*S. Hansen, office Pier 7 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*William Hansen, 9 Taylor Street, San Francisco
*Christopher K. Hanson, 144 Eleventh, San Francisco
*Joseph Harder, 723 Bryant Street, San Francisco
Capt. Harding (Sea Nymph)
*Alfred H. Hare, 10 Perry Street, San Francisco
*C. T. Harkins, cor A and Point Lobos Avenue, San Francisco
*George T. Harkness, 816 California Street, San Francisco
Kimball Harlow
*John Harrington, 406 Bryant Street, San Francisco
*John W. Harrington, 527 1/2 Green Street, San Francisco
Robert Harrison (Captain, Vicar-of-Bray)
*William Hartley, 1625 Leavenworth Street, San Francisco
*John J. Haviside, 30 Crocker
*Edward Haywood, 612 Second Street, San Francisco
Michael J. Healy
Captain Hedge
*Carl V. Heegaard, 812 Webster Street, San Francisco
*Edward Henrix, 215 Seventeenth Street, San Francisco
S. Henry
*Edward P. Herendeen, 511 Jones Street, San Francisco
*Lewis N. Herendeen, 139 Fourth Street, San Francisco
*F. L. Herriman, office 18 Howard Street, San Francisco
*Charles H. Hewitt, 2109 Broderick Street, San Francisco
Captain Higgins
Benjamin Hill
Captain Hinckley
E. T. Hitchcock
*George L. Hobbs, 32 Louisa Street, San Francisco
*Thomas Hoepner, 1603 Dolores Street, San Francisco
A. Holbrook
*Martin Holm, 81 Clementina Street, San Francisco
William Homen
Captain Hopkins
*James S. Horne, 16 Clay Street, San Francisco
Robert Henderson Horner
Captain Houdlette
*John R. Howard, American Exchange Hotel, San Francisco
William F. Howes
Ed Howe
Jeff Howell
E. Howes
*Laban H. Howes, 320 Mason Street, San Francisco
*James E. Howland, 216 Shotwell Street, San Francisco
William Howland
William H. Hudson (U.S. Navy Commander). Tour in Russia
*O. J. Humphrey, 623 1/2 Guerrero Street, San Francisco
Charles Hull (Captain of clipper ship Charles Mallory, 1852-1853)
Thomas Huntington
J. B. Hutchings
*August Hyer, 407 Main, rear, San Francisco

*James Ingersoll, 426 Twenty-ninth, San Francisco
*Christian H. Ingwersen, 866 Folsom Street, San Francisco
William Isley
J. B. G. Isham and on the SS Northerner
*Peter Ivancich, 14 Rausch Street, San Francisco

*Robert Jack, 333 Seventeenth
*Henry Jacobson, office 405 Front Street (Home 1047 Harrison Street), San Francisco
*J. H. Jacobson, office 18 Howard Street, San Francisco
*James Jamison, 334 1/2 Fremont Street, San Francisco
Nathanial Jarvis
*John Jensen, 1011 Harrison Street, San Francisco
*Rasmus Jepsen, 907 Minna Street, San Francisco
*Jasper W. Jesperson, 106 Silver, San Francisco
*Gustavus M. Jessen, 1524 Jackson Street, San Francisco
Captain Johnson, Captain of Westward Ho
*A. P. Johnson, 609 1/2 Howard Street, San Francisco
*Edward Johnson, 113 Francisco, San Francisco
George W. Johnson
*John W. Johnson, 333 Ritch Street, San Francisco
*Magnus Johnson, 30 1/2 Rausch Street, San Francisco
*Peter A. Johnson, 224 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
Henry Johnston
*Louis W. Johnston, 814 Valencia Street, San Francisco
*Hans Jorgensen, 2014 1/2 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*William W. Josselyn, 2324 Mission Street, San Francisco
*Arend Juchter, 666 Bryant Street, San Francisco

*James D. Keith, 304 Turk Street, San Francisco
Reuben Kellogg
W. Kennedy
*Louis Kessler, W s Prospect Av nr Twenty-eighth Street, Bernal Heights
*James Kiernan, 1129 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*Herman Kihn, 316 Fremont Street, San Francisco
George E. Kilham
*James H. Killeran, 123 Julian Avenue, San Francisco
*Daniel Killman, 606 Shotwell Street, San Francisco
*Henry Killman, 28 1/2 Clinton Park, San Francisco
*John H. Kimball, 1829 Mission Street, San Francisco
Edward A. King (Harbormaster 1850)
*James Kirk, 303 Lombard Street, San Francisco
*Charles J. Klinker, 224 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
*Emil Kluge, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
Captain Knapp
Captain Elias D. Knight
Captain G. B. Knight (Freighter Nebraskan)
Captain E. E. Knowles (Extreme Clipper White Swallow)
Captain Josiah Nickerson Knowles
*Gottfried Kohake, 521 Second, San Francisco
*George Kroeger, 14 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
*Chris N. Krogh, 139 Berry Street, San Francisco
*W. M. Krone, 2105 Stockton Street, San Francisco
*George Kruger, office Pier 7, San Francisco

*Henry La Bell, 1513 Lyon Street, San Francisco
Captain Laflin
Captain Lambert
*Henry N. Lamberth, 640 Minna Street, San Francisco
*Charles Lampe, 2611 Mission Street, San Francisco
*William J. Lancashire, 238 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*Peter F. Lane, 141 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
W.F. Lapidge
Fred Lawson
Samuel Leach
Captain Lee
P. S. LeFevre (or Lefever)
Willian Alexander Leidesdorff
A.V.H. Leroy, U.S.N.
*John Lavin, 20 Stanford Street, San Francisco
*John S. Lee, 6 Clay Street, San Francisco
*George V. Leland, 237 Seventh, San Francisco
*Herman D. Leland, 133 Ninth, San Francisco
*Hans O. Levinson, 1608 1/4 Stevenson Street, San Francisco
*Charles H. Lewis, 25 Tenth Avenue, San Francisco
*Emil Liebig, office 27 Steuart, Lawrence Place, San Francisco
Jose Yves Limantour
Captain Loper
Captain Bailey Loring
Captain F. W. Lovett
*John Low, 15 Hollis Street, San Francisco
*Harry Lubey, 54 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
J. S. Lucas (Captain of the clipper Charmer. Arrived San Francisco April 12, 1855)
*Harry Lyman, 35 Everett Street, San Francisco

*Matthias Maas, 516 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
Charles Harrington MacLeod
*Hans Madison, 2326 Mission Street, San Francisco
*Martin Mahler, 13 Hinckley Street, San Francisco
David Patrick Mallagh
*Henry Manning, 1323 1/2 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
S. Manson, Jr.
Captain Markham
Captain Marshall
*Andrew Martin, 54 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
William Matson
*Olof Mattson, 1913 Laguna Street, San Francisco
Jefferson Maury
*John W. McAllep, 319 1/2 Bartlett Street, San Francisco
*William I. McAllep, 216 Castro Street, San Francisco
*Alexander J. McCarren, 574 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*Charles McCarthy, 915 Lombard Street, San Francisco
William McClure
Captain McComas
*Hugh McCormick, 2648 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*John E. McCulloch, 923 Lombard Street, San Francisco
*Alexander McDonald, 1604 Jones Street, San Francisco
*Kenneth McDonald, 16 Clay Street, San Francisco
Captain McFarland, Steamer Zenith
Captain M'Gowan
Lauchlan McKay
Allan McLane, U.S.N.
John M. McLachlan (John McLachlan)
Daniel McLaughlin
Duncan McLean
*Christopher E. McNear, 225 Oak Street, San Francisco
*Martin P. McRae, 1066 Howard Street, San Francisco
E. Mellus
*William H. Mercer, 830-1/2 Broadway Street, San Francisco
*Alfred Metcalf, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
Lewis Meyer
William A. Mighell
*M. V. B. Millard, 1115 1/2 Twenty-first
*Frank G. Miller, 3215 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
W. A. Mills
*August Minor, 136 Liberty Street, San Francisco
Captain Mitchell
*Ernest W. J. E. Mittelstaedt, 1016 Page Street, San Francisco
*Charles F. Montell, 108 1/2 (San Francisco Street name missing)
*Edgar H. Montell, 316 Oak Street, San Francisco
John Berrian Montgomery
Captain Moore RMS Mikado, The Australian Line, 1874)
*Henry Moore, 1415 Powell Street, San Francisco
William Moore
*George F. Moorehouse, office 18 Howard Street (Home 1324 Buchanan Street), San Francisco
*F. E. Morley, office 27 Steuart Street, San Francisco
Isaac H. Morris
Captain Morrison
*Albion H. Morse, 2202 Steiner Street, San Francisco
*Charles C. Morse, 107 Scott Street, San Francisco
Thomas H. Morton
William Mosher
J. T. Mott
Captain Mumford
*Joseph W. Munroe, 2134 Union Street, San Francisco
Peter Simon Murchison
Alexander Sinclair Murray
F. Myrick (or F. Myrrick)

Samuel W. Naghel
*Andrew Nelson, 13 Clay, San Francisco
Captain Andrew W. Nelson, SS City of Para, 1908-1910
Charles Nelson, Oakland, California
*Oliver Nelson, 205 Ninth Street, San Francisco
*Olof Nelson, 2609 Larkin Street, San Francisco
*Peter Nelson, 320 Drumm Street, San Francisco
E. D. P. Nichols
E. W. Nichols
A. Nicholson (also spelled A. Nicolson)
J. J. Nicholson
E. Nickerson
*Sumner A. Nickerson, 1142 Howard Street, San Francisco
A. Nicolson (also spelled A. Nicholson)
A. P. Nielsen, seaman, 13 Clay Street, San Francisco (Langley's San Francisco Directory, 1889)
Captain(s) Nielsen (Miscellaneous entries. No first names given.)
*Albert Nielsen, Master Mariner, 1225 Union Street, San Francisco (Langley's San Francisco Directory, 1889)
E. M. Nielsen
Charles Nielsen, seaman, rear 11 Pacific Street (Langley's San Francisco Directory, 1889)
*Niels Nielsen, Master Mariner, 1805 1/2 Stockton Street, rear, San Francisco (Langley's San Francisco Directory, 1889)
N. H. Nielson (Queen, schooner, 1901)
Thomas Nielsen (Pioneer, tug, 1912)
Thomas Nielsen (Master, Makaweli, barkentine, 1911)
*Harry M. P. Nissen, 7 Natoma Street, San Francisco
Louis Nopander, Louis, seaman, 505 Union Street, rear (Langley's San Francisco Directory, 1889)
*Eric M. Nordberg, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
Arthur Nordling, seaman, 425 Bay, rear (Langley's San Francisco Directory, 1889), San Francisco
I. H. Norris
J. H. Norris
Nathaniel Nowell
*William P. Noyes, 915 Greenwich Street, San Francisco

*J. P. O'Connell, 54 Sacramento Street, San Francisco
*Edward O'Connor, 9 Glover Street, San Francisco
*Ole A. Olsen, 1806 Jessie Street, San Francisco
*Olof Olsen, 30 Clay Street, San Francisco
*Peter Olsen, 505 Third Street, San Francisco
*Louis Olson, 1216 Twenty-first Street, San Francisco
W.H. Osgood, Captain, Clippership Trade Wind
Douglas Ottinger

*Joseph M. Page, 111 Twenty-fourth Street, San Francisco
*William A. Palmer, 801 Pine Street, San Francisco
*Frederick Papenfaus, Winn nr Old Hickory, Bernal Heights, San Francisco
Captain Parkhurst
*Charles T. Parnow, 562 1/2 Bryant Street, San Francisco
*George Patten, 123 Powell Street, San Francisco
Joshua Patten (and Mary Patten)
Captain Patterson
Carlisle P. Patterson, U.S.N.
R.L. Patterson, U.S.N.
Robert H. Pearson, Esq. (Also spelled R. H. Pierson in the same issue of Daily Alta California.)
James B. Peck
Christian Pedersen, 1213 Florida Street, San Francisco
*Ellis B. Percy, office 22 California Home 109 Scott Street, San Francisco
Captain Perkins
*Alphonzo B. Perry, 32 Steuart Street, San Francisco
E. A. Perry
*William Peters, 44 Fourth Street, San Francisco
*John Petersen, 21 Hinckley Street, San Francisco
*Martin Petersen, 231 Eleventh Street, San Francisco
*Charles B. Peterson, The Morgan Oyster Co., 1213 Florida Street, San Francisco
*Christian Peterson, The Morgan Oyster Co., 1213 Florida Street, San Francisco
*Jacob Peterson, 30 1/2 Brosnan, San Francisco
*Thomas Peterson, Corea nr Santee, San Francisco
T. G. Pierce
*Henry Piltz, 613 Shotwell Street, San Francisco
Captain Pinkham
*George Plummer, 320 Castro Street, San Francisco
*John R. Potter, 819 Filbert Street, San Francisco
W. R. Potter
Captain Poulson
Timothy Pratt
Captain Prattle
Captain Pray
*Jacob Prigge, 294 East, San Francisco
*Joseph A. Pritchard, 227 Hayes Street, San Francisco
*Henry Purcher, 22 Zoe, rear, San Francisco

*Gaetano Queirolo, 1310 Kearny Street, San Francisco
*Robert Quinton, 20 Clementina Street, San Francisco

Henry Randall
William Chapman Ralston
*Thomas A. Randall, 6 Clay Street, San Francisco
*Hans Rasmussen, 609 Harrison Street, San Francisco
*Nels Rasmussen, 16 Pfeiffer, San Francisco
*Winslow Ray, 2516 Mission, San Francisco
*Joseph H. Redmond, 424 Fremont, San Francisco
Captain Reed
*Charles Reel, 1914 Mason Street, San Francisco
*John Rees, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*William Reid, 45 Twelfth, San Francisco
*G. T. Remmers, Corea and Penobscot
*Joseph H. Rex, 520 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
*William Rex, 520 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
Captain Reynard
*Edward B. Reynolds, 515 Jones Street, San Francisco
Abel W. Richardson
Joseph W. Richardson
William Richardson
*James R. Rideout, 804 Filbert Street, San Francisco
J. P. Ridley
David Ritchie
*Lawrence Roach, NE corner Twenty-forth and York, San Francisco
Robert H. Roberts, 5 Leroy Place, San Francisco, San Francisco
*Charles L. Robinson, 249 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*John J. Robinson, 716 Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco
*Charles Rock, 418 Greenwich Street, San Francisco
*Ephraim T. Rogers, 407 Octavia Street, San Francisco
A. S. Rogers
E. D. Rogers
*Gustave T. Rosenlund, 1910 Mason Street, San Francisco
*James Ross, 531 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco
*Thomas Ryan,1108 Montgomery Street, San Francisco
*Edward Ryder, 310 Kearny Street, San Francisco

*Robert R. Samarriter, 533 Taylor Street, San Francisco
*Olof Samuelson, 808 Union Street, San Francisco
*Charles Schmaling, 1121 Broadway Street, San Francisco
*William H. Schroeder, 914 Fifteenth, San Francisco
Captain Schultz
*Richard C. B. Schwartz, 2230 Hyde Street, San Francisco
Charles Seabury
Jason Seabury
William B. Seabury
*C. D. Searles, 1002 Minna Street, San Francisco
Victor Seaman
*Benjamin W. Sears, 5 Market Street, San Francisco
Elisha Sears
Captain Sewell
*James Sharkey, 406 Bryant Street, San Francisco
*Laurence Sharp, 325 1/2 Third Street, San Francisco
*William N. Shelley, W. N. Shelley & Co., 1800 Union Street, San Francisco
Captain Shepeard
Samuel V. Shreve
William T. Shorey
*S. Simonsen, 1914 Washington Street, San Francisco
*Simon Simonson, 423 Greenwich Street, San Francisco
George Simpton
*John Skipper, 6 1/2 Garden, San Francisco
C. H. Slater
*John Slater, 27 Federal Street, San Francisco
Captain Slemmer
*G. L. Small, office 18 Howard Street, San Francisco
Robert Small
*Axel W. Smith, 429 Tenth Street, San Francisco
*Edward Smith, 1222 Union Street, San Francisco
*H. D. Smith, 922 Greenwich Street, San Francisco
*Jacob C. Smith, 333 Ritch Street, San Francisco
Stephen Smith
*Thomas Smith, 216 Chestnut Street, San Francisco
*William Smith, NE cor Arlington and Miguel, Fairmount Tract
*John Soderman, 1206 1/2 Kearny Street, San Francisco
G. W. Somes
*Jacob Sommers, 2 Haggin, San Francisco
*Peter Sommers, 2 Haggin, San Francisco
*Gustave Sorman, 16 Clinton Park, San Francisco
C. Soule
Charles Spear
*Joseph R. Spencer, 559 1/2 Minna Street, San Francisco
Caleb Sprague
*Harry St. Clair, 410 Beale Street, San Francisco
Jasper Stahl
*Henry P. Stalman, 210 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*Samuel R. Stanton, 2305 Jones Street, San Francisco
Captain Staples
R. W. Steele (Packet ship Andrew Foster, U.S. Navy, Clipper Racer)
*Frederick Steinberg, office Pier 7 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*Fritz Sternberg, 18 South Park, San Francisco
Charles Stoddard
*John Storry, 2014 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*Leonard Storry, 2014 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*A. A. Stout, 645 3/4 Stevenson Street, San Francisco
*John H. Struckmeyer, 1718 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*Christian H. Stuhr, 22 Welsh, San Francisco
*Robert Sudden, 716 Hayes Street, San Francisco
*Daniel Sullivan, 1121 Harrison Street, San Franciscp
*George W. Swanton, 816 Church Street, San Francisco
G. B. Swasey
*Ezra D. Swift, 2313 Howard Street, San Francisco

Captain Taber
Captain Tadacher
Captain Tapley
*Gerhard F. Terschuren, 2224 Pine Street, San Francisco
Captain Tezequel
*A. L. Thompson, office Pier 7 Steuart Street, San Francisco
*August Thompson, 37 Pacific, San Francisco
Charles Thompson
*Joseph Thompson, 402 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco
*Daniel C. Thomsen, 907 Lombard Street, San Francisco
*W. Thornagle, 103 Welsh, San Francisco
Captain Hall J. Tibbetts
*Andrew E. Tommereg, 2000 Dupont Street, San Francisco
*William Tornstrom, 713 1/2 Treat Avenue, San Francisco
Lt. George M. Totten, U.S.N.
Captain Townsend
C. F. Trask
J. H. Trask
Captain Treadwell
*T. H. Treat, 503 Folsom Street, San Francisco
*Charles A. Treanor, 26 South Park, San Francisco
*Samuel G. Treanor, 26 South Park, San Francisco
*William Treanor, 26 South Park, San Francisco
D. H. Truman
*Henry S. Tucker, 609 Haight Street, San Francisco
*Benjamin C. Turner, 8 Elgin Park Avenue
Matthew Turner, Master Mariner and Shipbuilder
*Walker C. Tyler, 1849 Stevenson Street, San Francisco

James Iredell Waddell
*Albert Wagner, 333 1/2 Hayes Street, San Francisco
*Nicholas Wagner, 510 Jones Street, San Francisco
* John Wahlman, 127 Chattanooga, San Francisco
Edgar Wakeman
William Ward, Captain of the ill-fated City of Rio de Janeiro
Robert H. Waterman
James T. Watkins
Captain Watson
Samuel Weare, Owner and Captain of the Philadelphia
*John Weatherson, 6 Clay Street, San Francisco
Nathaniel Webber
*Henry Weber, 335 Seventeenth Street, San Francisco
Captain Webster
*Charles E. Weeks, 603 Bartlett Street, San Francisco
*James Weir, 1213 Kearny Street, San Francisco
*John C. Wells, 1412 Hyde Street, San Francisco
Samuel S. Welsh
*Thomas H. Wentworth, 746 Howard Street, San Francisco
*R. A. Westphal, 1320 Jackson Street, San Francisco
*Robert H. Wheeler, 20 Rondell Place, San Francisco
*William M. White, 2145 Mission Street, San Francisco
Thomas P. Whitelaw
Richard L. Whiting
*Daniel Whitney, 6 Clay Street, San Francisco
*S.F. Wickbert, 1112 Jackson, San Francisco
*Frank Wiese, 15 De Boom, San Francisco
Captain Charles Wilkes
Captain Wilkinson
Benjamin Williams (Ship Cordillera)
*John Williams, 17 1/2 Clara, San Francisco
*Louis A. Willig, office 405 Front Street, San Francisco
*Henry Wilson, 134 Twenty-ninth, San Francisco
*O. P. Wilson, W s Prospect Avenue nr Cortland Avenue, Bernal Heights, San Francisco
*Constantine L. Wolf, SE cor Sanchez and Day Streets, San Francisco
*Selim E. Woodworth, 320 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco
George Wright (Freighter Nebraskan, 1913)
J. T. Wright and Thomas Wright, 2622 Bush Street, San Francisco
Captain Wood
Captain Worth

X - Y
Captain Yates
Captain Ygebbes
Andrew S. Young, 1716 Jackson Street Street, San Francisco
John C. Young, 113 Cumberland Street, San Francisco

Frank Zattert, 581 Noe Street, San Francisco
John Zerega, Captain, Queen of Clippers

Microfilm Publication T288: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934

This microfilm publication reproduces a general index to pension files, 1861-1934. The pension applications to which this index applies relate chiefly to Army, Navy, and Marine Corps service performed between 1861 and 1916. Most of the records relate to Civil War service some relate to earlier service by Civil War veterans others relate to service in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Boxer Rebellion, and the Regular Establishment. There are no Federal pension records for service in Confederate forces.

Each card in the general index gives a veteran's name, rank, unit, and term of service names of dependent(s) the filing date the application number the certificate number and the state from which the claim was filed. The darker cards relate to naval service.

Part 2: Roll List

Roll Description
1 Aab--Ackerman, Garrett
2 Ackerman, George--Adams, Lige
3 Adams, Lincoln--Ah, Her Saw
4 Ah, Qua Rah--Aldrich, Walter
5 Aldrich, Warren--Allen, Clarence
6 Allen, Clarence--Allen, William
7 Allen, William--Americas, Edward
8 Ames, Alge--Anderson, James
9 Anderson, Jas.--Andrews, Dan
10 Andrews, Daniel--Appenfelder, Frederick
11 Appenfelder, Frederick--Armstrong, James
12 Armstrong, James--Arthurs, Abraham
13 Arthur, Robert--Atkinson, Felix
14 Atkinson, Francis--Axe, Lorenzo
15 Axe, Peter--Bacon, Lester
16 Bacon, Levi--Bailey, Samuel
17 Bailey, Samuel O.--Baker, Jacob
18 Baker, Jacob--Baldwin, Julius
19 Baldwin, Justin R.--Bangert, Geo.
20 Bangert, Henry--Barentzen, Lauritz
21 Barepole, Charley--Barnes, James
22 Barnes, James--Barre, Lucius
23 Barre, Onesime--Bartlett, Charles F.
24 Bartlett, Charles G.--Batchelor, Geo.
25 Batchelor, Henry--Baumgardner, Christian
26 Baumgardner, Daniel--Beamen, James
27 Beamenderfer, John H.--Bechtol, George
28 Bechtol, Henry--Beekman, Arthur
29 Beekman, Chancey--Bell, James R.
30 Bell, James R.--Benford, John H.
31 Benford, Joseph--Benning, John
32 Benning, Charles--Bernard, Dennis
33 Bernard, Dennis--Bettman, Alfred
34 Bettman, Gotleib--Biggs, Elijah
35 Biggs, Elisha--Birk, Gottfield
36 Birk, Jacob--Black, John W.
37 Black, John W.--Blair, John W.
38 Blair, Jonas--Blase, Wm. F.
39 Blasedell, Joseph--Bluit, Anthony
40 Bluitt, Lyman--Bogue, Silas
41 Bogue, Stephen--Boner, Peter
42 Boner, Peter--Boreman, Jacob
43 Boreman, Thomas--Boulson, Kenneth
44 Boult, Frank--Bowles, Daniel
45 Bowles, Daniel--Boyo, Wm. H.
46 Boyd, Wm. H.--Bradford, James
47 Bradford, James--Braisted, Wm.
48 Braisure, Amos--Branum, Charles
49 Branum, Charles--Brennan, Jeremiah
50 Brennan, Jeremiah--Brewer, Katie
51 Brewer, Lafayette--Brileya, Peter
52 Brilhart, Hiram--Brockway, Stephen
53 Brockway, Stephen--Brophy, Wm.
54 Brophy, Wm.--Brown, Dennis
55 Brown, Dennis--Brown, James B.
56 Brown, James B.--Brown, Oscar
57 Brown, Oscar--Browne, Byron
58 Browne, Charles--Brussard, Eugen
59 Brusse, Henry--Buck, Haven
60 Buck, Harvey--Bull, James R.
61 Bull, Jefferson--Burd, Wm.
62 Burd, Wm.--Burke, Thomas
63 Burke, Thomas--Burns, Hiram
64 Burns, Hiram--Burt, Lucius
65 Burt, Luther--Butcher, Jesse
66 Butcher, John--Buzan, Wm.
67 Buzan, Wm.--Cager, Robert
68 Cagg, Andrew--Callahan, John
69 Callahan, John--Campbell, Geo.
70 Campbell, Geo. S.--Canfield, Lewis
71 Canfield, Lewis--Carkhuff, John
72 Carkhuff, Samuel--Carpenter, Harry
73 Carpenter, Harry--Carroll, James
74 Carroll, James--Carter, Lewis
75 Carter, Lewis--Case, Henry O.
76 Case, Henry W.--Castle, Wm. D.
77 Castle, Wm.--Chadwick, Adel
78 Chadwick, Albert--Chance, Wm. T.
79 Chance, Wm. W.--Chappel, Robert
80 Chappel, Robert C.--Cheney, Isaiah
81 Cheney, Ithamar--Chrisman, Lorenzo
82 Chrisman, Luke--Clammer, Jacob
83 Clamor, Engracio--Clark, Hiland
84 Clark, Hinman H.--Clark, Vincent B.
85 Clark, Vincent E.--Cleveland, Albert B.
86 Cleaveland, Albert H.--Cline, Wm.
87 Cline, Wm.--Cobb, Oliver
88 Cobb, Oliver--Coggin, Wm. T.
89 Coggins, Anthony--Cole, Robert H.
90 Cole, Robert M.--Collins, Berta
91 Collins, Bertrand--Colton, Edward
92 Colton, Edward H.--Conger, Alex.
93 Conger, Anson--Connolly, Bart
94 Connolly, Bernard--Cook, Christopher
95 Cook, Christopher--Cooley, Nathan L.
96 Cooley, Nathan M.--Cooper, Wyley
97 Cooper, Youle--Cornelius, Gust.
98 Cornelius, Hardin--Cotter, Michael
99 Cotter, Michael--Cowan, Theodore
100 Cowan, Theodore--Coyle, James J.
101 Coyle, James J.--Crandall, James R.
102 Crandall, James S.--Crays, Andrew
103 Crays, David--Crockett, Francis M.
104 Crockett, Francis T.--Crosser, Adam
105 Crosser, Harrison--Crumrine, Bishop
106 Crumrine, Boyd--Cummins, Oliver
107 Cummins, Orange S.--Curry, Michael
108 Curry, Michael--Dabney, Clark
109 Dabney, Cornelius--Danforth, Clarence
110 Danforth, Clarence--Daniels, Isaiah
111 Daniels, J. S.--Davenport, Alfred
112 Davenport, Alfred--Davis, Decon
113 Davis, Dewey--Davis, John P.
114 Davis, John P.--Davison, Isaiah
115 Davison, Jacob--Dean, Charles B.
116 Dean, Charles B.--Decook, Henry
117 Decook, Peter--Delap, Joseph
118 Delap, Joseph--Dennewitz, Conrad
119 Denney, Abram--Deschler, Maurice
120 Deschler, Valentine--Dewitt, Geo. W.
121 Dewitt, Geo. W.--Dickson, Benjamin
122 Dickson, Benjamin--Dillon, John F.
123 Dillon, John F.--Dixon, Joseph C.
124 Dixon, John--Dohn, Adam
125 Dohn, Andrew--Donnely, William
126 Donnely, William--Doss, Charles
127 Doss, Charles W.--Dow, Francis R.
128 Dow, Frank--Doyle, Cornelius
129 Doyle, James--Doyle, Jacob
130 Doyle, James--Drinkwater, Alpheus
131 Drinkwater, Charles--Duff, James W.
132 Duff, James W.--Duncan, Joseph
133 Duncan, Joseph--Dunn, Thomas
134 Dunn, Thomas B.--Dutton, Edward
135 Dutton, Edward--Earl, Robert R.
136 Earl, Robert W.--Eberling, Wm.
137 Eberly, Albert M.--Edmonds, John
138 Edmonds, John A.--Eggers, Emil
139 Eggers, Peter--Eliott, Halbert
140 Eliott, James--Ellis, John B.
141 Ellis, John C.--Emerson, James P.
142 Emerson, James R.--Engstrom, John
143 Engstrom, John--Erb, George
144 Erb, Harvey--Estover, George
145 Estrada, Antonio--Evans, Wm. T.
146 Evans, Wm. T.--Failing, Charles
147 Failing, Cornelius--Farmer, Thompson
148 Farmer, Traais--Faunce, George
149 Faunce, Martin--Fennen, Henry
150 Fenner, Albert C.--Fesler, Benjamin
151 Fesler, Cassius A.--Filey, Wm. H.
152 Filley, Wm. H.--Fish, Thomas S.
153 Fish, Thomas J.--Fitch, John A.
154 Fitch, John A.--Flanders, Samuel
155 Flanders, Samuel B.--Flew, William
156 Flewallen, Alfred--Foglesang, Eli W.
157 Foglesang, Nathaniel--Ford, John B.
158 Ford, John--Foster, Aaron
159 Foster, Aaron--Fowler, Olin N.
160 Fowler, Oliver--Francisco, Juan
161 Francisco, Levi--Frech, Henry
162 Frech, Hubert--French, John
163 French, John--Frost, Benjamin
164 Frost, Benjamin--Fuller, John W.
165 Fuller, John W.--Furneisen, H.
166 Furneld, George--Callagher, Jas. H.
167 Gallagher, James H.--Garcelon, W.
168 Garch, Joseph--Garnier, John
169 Garnier, Joseph--Gaston, James
170 Gaston, James W.--Gee, Charles R.
171 Gee, Christopher C.--Gehris, Wilson
172 Gehrike, Albert--German, Linsey
173 German, Littleton--Gibson, James L.
174 Gibson, James M.--Gilbert, John B.
175 Gilbert, John C.--Gilliam, Peter
176 Gilliam, Primus--Givier, Edwin
177 Givier, George--Glidden, Arno
178 Glidden, Augustus--Golden, Andrew
179 Golden, Andrew--Goodrich, Bertrand
180 Goodrich, Bethuel--Gorham, William
181 Gorham, Wm. E.--Gowman, Wm.
182 Gowner, Lewis--Grane, Herman
183 Grane, Mikal O.--Gray, Edward
184 Gray, Edward--Green, David L.
185 Green, David M.--Greenberger, B.
186 Greenburgh, Samuel--Gresh, Henry
187 Gresh, Samuel--Griggs, Albert P.
188 Griggs, Alexander--Gross, Daniel
189 Gross, Daniel--Guest, John W.
190 Guest, Joseph--Gutline, Ethru F.
191 Gutling, Wm.--Haffner, W.
192 Hafford, B.--Halbert, Silas
193 Halbert, Smith--Hall, Ivory
194 Hall, Ivory A.--Halliman, Thomas
195 Halliman, Wm.--Hamilton, Robert
196 Hamilton, Robert--Hanchett, John
197 Hanchett, Joseph--Hannefin, J.
198 Hanneford, Wm.--Hardin, Robert
199 Hardin, Ruburtus--Harmer, Alfred
200 Harmer, Amos--Harrington, Michael
201 Harrington, Michael B.--Harris, Stephen
202 Harris, Stephen--Hart, Jacob
203 Hart, Jacob--Harvey, Adam
204 Harvey, Albert--Hatch, David G.
205 Hatch, David O.--Haw, William
206 Haw, William--Hayes, Charles W.
207 Hayes, Charles W.--Hazel, Jack
208 Hazel, James H.--Heck, Theodore
209 Hechinger, Clifford--Heiple, Henry
210 Heiple, Henry F.--Henderson, Charles
211 Henderson, Charles--Hennessy, Michael
212 Hennessey, Michael--Hepler, Andrew
213 Hepler, Clarence--Hershey, Isaac
214 Hershey, Isaac--Hibbard, Harris
215 Hibbard, Harry--Higgins, Jason
216 Higgins, Jasper--Hill, Henry H.
217 Hill, Henry H.--Hiltman, Abraham
218 Hiltman, John--Hirschfeld, Emanuel
219 Hirschfeld, Ernest--Hockman, Wm. W.
220 Hockman, Wm. W.--Hoffman, Werner L.
221 Hoffman, Wesley R.--Holder, Edward
222 Holder, Eleano--Holly, Daniel
223 Holly, Daniel W.--Holverson, Frank
224 Holverson, Halver--Hopes, J. Solomon
225 Hopes, Thomas W.--Horney, Joseph
226 Horney, Joseph M.--Houghton, Geo. W.
227 Houghton, Geo. W.--Howard, John
228 Howard, John--Howland, Herbert V.
229 Howland, Herman--Hudon, Louis
230 Hudon, Ombro--Hughes, George
231 Hughes, Geo. W.--Humbell, John
232 Humber, Carroll--Hunt, William
233 Hunt, William--Hurd, Thomas W.
234 Hurd, Thomas--Hutchinson, Mathias
235 Hutchinson, Mayheir--Imfeld, Ferd.
236 Imfeld, Franz--Irvine, Robert W.
237 Irvine, Samuel--Jackson, Charles F.
238 Jackson, Charles F.--Jackson, Wm. A.
239 Jackson, William A.--James, William
240 James, W.--Jauslin, Joseph
241 Jauss, Christian--Jenkins, John
242 Jenkins, John--Jewett, Charles A.
243 Jewett, Charles A.--Johnson, Chris
244 Johnson, Chris--Johnson, James
245 Johnson, James--Johnson, Ogden
246 Johnson, Okey M.--Johnson, Wm. P.
247 Johnson, Wm. Q.--Jones, Chesley
248 Jones, Chesley--Jones, James W.
249 Jones, James. W.--Jones, Smith
250 Jones, Smith E.--Jordan Wm. O.
251 Jordan, William P.--Kaf Fes Sah
252 Kaffey, Martin--Kauble, Benjamin
253 Kauble, Benjamin F.--Keeley, John
254 Keeley, John--Kell, Nathaniel
255 Kell, Noah--Kellum, Daniel F.
256 Kellum, Edward M.--Kelter, Daniel
257 Keltner, Dion B.--Kennedy, Richard
258 Kennedy, Richard--Kerney, Timothy
259 Kerney, Whit--Keys, Southey
260 Keys, Stephen W.--Kimball, Chas.
261 Kimball, Chas. C.--King, Harry
262 King, Harry--Kinley, Jacob
263 Kinley, James--Kurkendall, Rich.
264 Kirkendall, Robert--Kleinhans, M.
265 Kleinhays, Wm.--Knapp, Zero
266 Knappe, Adolph--Knowlton, Daniel
267 Knowlton, Daniel--Kooner, Thos.
268 Koones, Albert--Kriege, William
269 Kriegel, Emil F.--Kurtz, John
270 Kurtz, John--LaGraff, John B.
271 LaGraff, Michael--LaMont, John
272 Lamont, John--Lane, John M.
273 Lane, John M.--Lapay, Pedro
274 Lape, Aamon--Lathbury, John
275 Lathe, Abner P.--Lawrence, Edward
276 Lawrence, Edward--Leach, James
277 Leach, James M.--Lee, Dwight, M.
278 Lee, Earl--Leger, William
279 Legere, Andrew--Lennon, Edward
280 Lennon, Francis--Levan, Obediah
281 Leven, Oscar--Lewis, Joseph
282 Lewis, Joseph--Lewis, Wm. I.
283 Lewis, Wm. J.--Lincoln, Thomas
284 Lincoln, Thomas A.--Linson, Lyman
285 Linson, Theo.--Livermore, Ben.
286 Livermore, Ben. W.--Loftus, Martin
287 Loftus, Martin V.--Long, Wm. H.
288 Long, William, J.--Loucks, Peter
289 Loucks, Peter B.--Lowe, Wm.
290 Lowe, Wm.--Ludwig, John
291 Ludwig, John--Lyle, Wm. W.
292 Lyles, Alexander--Lythe, Wm. C.
293 Lytle, Aaron W.--McCabe, Francis
294 McCabe, Francis--McCartney, Wm.
295 McCartney, Wm.--McClintick, H.
296 McClintick, Henry C.--McComb, John
297 McComb, John--McCormic, Touson
298 McCormic, H.--McCume, P.
299 McCume, Philip--McDonald, John
300 McDonald, John W.--McFadden, Alex.
301 McFadden, Alex.--McGinnis, Edward J.
302 McGinnis, Edward J.--McGuire, John
303 McGuire, John--McKain, James
304 McKain, James--McKibbin, James
305 McKibben, James F.--McLaughlin, James B.
306 McLaughlin, James B.--McMican, Joseph
307 McMichael, Abraham--McNeil, George
308 McNeil, George--McTigue, Michael
309 McTigue, Patrick--Maglalang, Julian
310 Maglalang, Marce--Malarkey, Dennis
311 Malarkey, James--Mangan, John
312 Mangan, John--Manuel, Marcelin
313 Manuel, Mark--Marlin, Wm. T.
314 Marline, Aaron A.--Marshall, Thomas
315 Marshall, Thomas--Martin, John
316 Martin, John--Mary, Matthew
317 Marx, Michael--Mathers, John D.
318 Mathers, John F.--Mattoon, Charles
319 Mattoon, Charles H.--Mayer, George
320 Mayer, George--Mechling, Amos
321 Mechling, Augustus A.--Melcoon, Samuel
322 Meloon, Samuel S.--Merithew, Wm. H.
323 Meritt, Allen--Metcalf, James
324 Metcalf, James--Mickleborough, F.
325 Mickleby, Theo. A.--Miller, Anthony M.
326 Miller, Anthony W.--Miller, Henry L.
327 Miller, Henry M.--Miller, Marvin
328 Miller, May E.--Millington, Thos.
329 Millington, Wm.--Minnis, Charles
330 Minnis, Charles M.--Mitchell, Thos.
331 Mitchell, Thomas--Monaghan, Thomas
332 Monaghan, Thomas--Moody, Jesse G.
333 Moody, John--Moore, Henry H.
334 Moore, Henry W.--Moore, Wm. H.
335 Moore, Wm. H.--Moran, James
336 Moran, James J.--Morgan, Samuel
337 Morgan, Samuel B.--Morris, Samuel P.
338 Morris, Samuel P.--Morinmer, Mabel
339 Mortimer, Marcellus--Moulton, Frank
340 Moulton, Frank P.--Mullane, Wm. H.
341 Mullaney, Anthony--Munson, Fred
342 Munson, Fred--Murphy, Thomas
343 Murphy, Thomas--Myers, Geo. A.
344 Myers, Geo. B.--Nash, Charles A.
345 Nash, Charles A.--Neff, John M.
346 Neff, John S.--Nesbitt, Wm. E.
347 Nesbitt, Wm. E.--Newman, Lazarus
348 Newman, Leon--Nichols, Wilber
349 Nichols, Wilbur--Noble, Geo. W.
350 Noble, Geo. W.--Norris, Isaac
351 Norris, Isaac--Nuckles, Wm. H.
352 Nuckolls, Asa H.--O'Brien, John
353 O'Brien, John--O'Donnell, Daniel
354 O'Donnell, Daniel--Olds, Isaac
355 Olds, Isaac--O'Neal, John T.
356 O'Neal, John T.--Orr, William
357 Orr, William--Otly, James L.
358 Otman, Sylvester--Owens, Thomas
359 Owens, Thomas--Painter, Jacob
360 Painter, Jacob--Pama, Erasmo
361 Pamanyag, Vincente--Parker, Jacob W.
362 Parker, James--Parrett, Joseph
363 Parrett, Dawson A.--Patterson, Alonzo
364 Patterson, Alonzo F.--Paulter, John
365 Paulus, Abraham--Peary, John
366 Peary, John C.--Pence, Francis W.
367 Pence, Franklin--Perkins, Isa
368 Perkins, Isaac--Perry, Thos. H.
369 Perry, Thomas H.--Pettegreew, Wm.
370 Pettengail, Clark--Philipsen, Herman
371 Philipsen, One V.H.--Pick, Earle
372 Pick, Ernest--Pigott, John
373 Pigott, John--Pixley, John S.
374 Pixley, John W.--Plunket, Wm.
375 Plunkett, Abraham--Pool, Thomas
376 Pool, Thomas--Post, Joseph
377 Post, Joseph--Powell, Thomas
378 Powell, Thomas--Prentice, Geo. W.
379 Prentice, Geo. W.--Price, Timothy
380 Price, Timothy--Pruett, Daniel
381 Pruett, Daniel B.--Putnam, John J.
382 Putnam, John L.--Quino, Flavio
383 Quino, Marcelino--Rambo, William
384 Rambo, William--Rannie, Alexander
385 Rannie, Geo. A.--Ray, John G.
386 Ray, John E.--Records, Thos. S.
387 Records, Thompson, L.--Reed, John A.
388 Reed, John A.--Reeves, Thomas F.
389 Reeves, Thos G.--Reissig, Adolph
390 Reissig, John--Reynolds, Edmund
391 Reynolds, Edwin--Rhone, Dandridge
392 Rhone, Daniel L.--Richards, John
393 Richards, John O.--Richmond, Wm. R.
394 Richmond Wm. S.--Rigby, Wm. H.
395 Rigby, Wm. H.--Rinier, Peter
396 Rinier, Samuel--Rizer, William
397 Rizer, Wm.--Roberts, Geo. F.
398 Roberts, Geo. F.--Robilliard, John
399 Robin, Alfred--Robinson, Robert A.
400 Robinson, Robt.--Robinson, Wm. F.
401 Robinson, Wm. G.--Roe, Charles
402 Roe, Charles--Rogge, Charles H.
403 Rogge, Diedrich--Root, John E.
404 Root, John E.--Ross, George
405 Ross, George--Roush, George
406 Roush, George A.--Rubin, Arcadio
407 Rubio, Charles--Rupley, Henry
408 Rupley, Henry C.--Russum, J.
409 Russum, John W.--Sabin, Charles C.
410 Sabin, Frederick--Sames, Pearl
411 Sames, William J.--Sandquist, Gustave
412 Sandra, Francis H.--Saunders, John R.
413 Saunders, John R.--Savage, Isom
414 Savage, Jacob--Schaefer, Nicholas
415 Schafer, Nicholas--Schlaich, Henry
416 Schlaich, John--Schnelzer, Francis
417 Schnemilch, Wm.--Schuler, Wm. H.
418 Schuler, Wm. W.--Scott, Charles H.
419 Scott, Charles H.--Scoville, Thomas
420 Scoville, Wallace--Sedelbauer, John L.
421 Sedello, Pablo--Sells, David L.
422 Sells, David M.--Shade, Geo. W.
423 Shade, Harry--Shannon, William J.
424 Shannon, Wm. J.--Shaw, Prince
425 Shaw, Rodney K.--Sheldon, Shepard L.
426 Sheldon, Shepard--Sherman, Chas. A.
427 Sherman, Charles A.--Shinkle, Erastus
428 Shinkle, Eugen M.--Short, John H.
429 Short, John J.--Shuttlesworth, Wm. R.
430 Shuttleton, John--Sim, Archibald
431 Sim, Archie--Simpson, James W.
432 Simpson, James W.--Siver, Robert
433 Siver, Robert--Slaughter, Wm. R.
434 Slaughter, Wm. K.--Smathers, Reuben
435 Smathers, Robert F.--Smith, Chas. G.
436 Smith, Chas. G.--Smith, George
437 Smith, George--Smith, Jacob
438 Smith, Jacob--Smith, John H.
439 Smith, John H.--Smith, John J.
440 Smith, John L.--Smith, Oscar C.
441 Smith, Oscar--Smith, Varde
442 Smith, Varius Q.--Snakle, Peter
443 Snaman Geo. W.--Snyder, James K.
444 Snyder, James L.--Soules, Francis
445 Soules, Benjamin--Speakman, Charles
446 Speakman, Charles Y.--Spickler, Benjamin
447 Spickler, Chas.--Spurgeon, Jeremiah
448 Spurgeon, Jeremiah--Stanbrough, Joseph B.
449 Stanbrough, Levi--Starling, Abraham
450 Starlin, Adam--Steerman, Charles
451 Steers, Abraham--Sterling, John B.
452 Sterling, John C.--Stevenson, Wm.
453 Stevenson, Wm.--Stickle, Wm. H.
454 Stickle, Wm. H.--Stoddard, Hez.
455 Stoddard, John A.--Stork, Wm.
456 Stork, William--Strauch, Thomas
457 Strauch, Wm.--Stryhn, Louis
458 Stryke, Chas.--Sullivan, Edward
459 Sullivan, Edward--Surkant, Louis
460 Surd, Albert--Swartwood, Almond
461 Swartwood, Alonzo--Swink, Fred
462 Swink, Fred--Tallmadge, Mose
463 Tallmadge, Nenell--Taylor, Chas. E.
464 Taylor, Charles F.--Taylor, George S.
465 Taylor, George T.--Taylor, Septimus
466 Taylor, Seth B.--Temple, Palmer C.
467 Temple, Park E.--Tharp, Washington
468 Tharp, Wilber A.--Thomas, George
469 Thomas, George--Thomas, William
470 Thomas, Wm.--Thompson, Henry R.
471 Thompson, Henry R.--Thompson, Thos.
472 Thompson, Thomas--Thost, Julius
473 Thostenson, Ole--Tilford, Lewis
474 Tilford, Nicholas--Tittsworth, James
475 Tittsworth, John C.--Tompkins, Addison
476 Tompkins, Albert--Towle, Elisha
477 Towle, Ethelbert--Trask, James H.
478 Trask, James H.--Triplett, James H.
479 Triplett, James H.--Truman, Geo. W.
480 Truman, Geo. W.--Tullar, John F.
481 Tullar, John M.--Turner, Leander
482 Turner, Leander--Tyas, Jonathan
483 Tyas, Richard--Underwood, Alonzo
484 Underwood, Ambrose--Valentine, Levi
485 Valentine, Levi--Vandermark, Abram
486 Vandermark, Abram--VanMarter, John
487 VanMarter, Joseph--VanZant, Henry
488 VanZant, Henry P.--Vermillion, Marcus
489 Vermillion, Martin--Visscher, Geo.
490 Visscher, Henry--Vreeland, Benjamin
491 Vreeland, Charles--Wagner, Jasper
492 Wagner, Jeremiah--Waldron, Isaac
493 Waldron, James--Walker, Lyman
494 Walker, Lyman--Wallace, Jos.
495 Wallace, Joseph--Walter, Andrew A.
496 Walter, Andrew F.--Wandross, Mingo
497 Wands, Alburtus--Wardell, George J.
498 Wardell, Henry--Warren, Alonzo
499 Warren, Alonzo S.--Washington, Geo.
500 Washington, Geo.--Watkins, John B.
501 Watkins, John C.--Watt, Levi
502 Watt, Levi--Weaver, Geo. K.
503 Weaver, George--Weber, Adolph
504 Weber, Adolph--Weeks, David
505 Weidenhamer, Chas. H.--Welch, John
506 Welch, John--Wells, James W.
507 Wells, James--Wentzel, Samuel
508 Wentzel, Simon--West, Prima
509 West, Ralph M.--Whalen, James B.
510 Whalen, James E.--Wheelock, DeForest
511 Wheelock, Edgar L.--White, Charles
512 White, Charles L.--White, Jordan
513 White, Joseph--Whitehead, William K.
514 Whitehead, Wm. W.--Whitlock, Henry L.
515 Whitlock, Hiran E.--Whitten, Geo. W.
516 Whitten, Gilman--Wiesman, Berhard
517 Wiesman, Ferdinand--Wilcoxen, Anthony
518 Wilcoxen, Charles--Wilkerson, Gus
519 Weeks, David--Willan, Thomas
520 Willan, Charles B.--Williams, Daniel
521 Williams, Daniel--Williams, Jacob
522 Williams, Jacob--Williams, Manuel
523 Williams, Mansfield--Williams, Wm. H.
524 Williams, Wm. H.--Willoughby, Wm. A.
525 Willoughby, Wm. A.--Wilson, George
526 Wilson, Geo. A.--Wilson, Joseph
527 Wilson, Joseph--Wilson, Wm. S.
528 Wilson, Wm. S.--Winkley, Edson S.
529 Winkley, Frank H.--Wise, Edward M.
530 Wise, Edward W.--Wixson, Mengo
531 Wixson, Robert--Wolverton, Isaac
532 Wolverton, Jacob--Wood, James
533 Wood, James--Woodcock, Alexander
534 Woodcock, Almon--Woods, Patrick F.
535 Woods, Patrick H.--Wootton, Burton
536 Wootton, Daniel H.--Wright, Alexander
537 Wright, Alexander B.--Wright, Louis
538 Wright, Louis H.--Wyatt, Frederick
539 Wyatt, Garland M.--Yates, Asa
540 Yates, Aubyn Arthur--York, Dan C.
541 York, Daniel--Young, David I.
542 Young, David J.--Young, Rutledge E.
543 Young, Salathiel--Zellman, John
544 Zellman, Wm.--Zytkoskie, Edmund

Part 3: Where to Find these Records

You can search microfilm T-288 at the research facilities listed below.

The National Archives at San Francisco, 1000 Commodore Dr., San Bruno, CA 94066-2350. Phone: 650-238-3496.

National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20408-0001. Phone: 202-501-5400.

National Archives at Chicago, 7358 South Pulaski Rd., Chicago, IL 60629-5898. Phone: 773-948-9000.

Allen County Public Library, Historical Genealogy Department, 900 Webster, P.O. Box 2270, Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270. Phone: 219-421-1225.

Indiana State Library, Genealogy Division, 140 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Phone: 317-232-3675.

Library of Michigan, 717 West Allegan St., P.O. Box 30007, Lansing, MI 48909. Phone: 517-373-1580.

Dallas Public Library, Genealogy Section, 1515 Young Street, 8th Floor, Dallas, TX 75201. Phone: 214-670-1433.

Houston Public Library's Clayton Library, 5300 Caroline St., Houston, TX 77004-6896. Phone: 832-393-2600.

Family History Library, 35 North West Temple St., Salt Lake City, UT 84150.

Heritage Quest Research Library, 909 Main St., Suite 5, Sumner, WA 98390. Phone: 253-863-1806.

NARA--Pacific Alaska Region (Seattle), 6125 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 91115-7999. Phone: 206-526-6501.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State St., Madison, WI 53706. Phone: 608-264-6400.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
Contact us with questions or comments.

The Lords of Creation: The History of America's 1 Percent (Forbidden Bookshelf)

To understand why the Great Recession happened, start here.

Today, many Americans puzzle over why the Great Recession happened. Amazon lists more than 1,000 books on the subject. But readers today might benefit from taking a longer view. Because, as Frederick Lewis Allen told the tale in The Lords of Creation nearly ninety years ago, the conditions that arose in the Gilded Age and the Roaring Twenties and lay at the root of the Depression bear an uncanny resemblance to those of the current era be To understand why the Great Recession happened, start here.

Today, many Americans puzzle over why the Great Recession happened. Amazon lists more than 1,000 books on the subject. But readers today might benefit from taking a longer view. Because, as Frederick Lewis Allen told the tale in The Lords of Creation nearly ninety years ago, the conditions that arose in the Gilded Age and the Roaring Twenties and lay at the root of the Depression bear an uncanny resemblance to those of the current era beginning late in the 1970s.

When Allen’s book appeared in 1935, the United States (and the world) was in the throes of the Great Depression. The previous year the nation’s economy had begun its long, slow climb out of the depths reached in 1933. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal was beginning to pay off. But policymakers and the public alike yearned to understand how things had gotten so bad. And economists were almost without exception among those who celebrated the 1920s boom up until the day it went bust. So, historians like Harper’s Magazine editor Frederick Lewis Allen took up the challenge to explain what lay behind the greatest economic catastrophe in American history. He found the roots of the crisis in the emergence of the trusts, the holding companies, and stock watering late in the nineteenth century. The Lords of Creation makes the case in lively, readable prose.

Common themes in America’s economic history

“Run out and buy Europe for me.”

During the decades following the Civil War (1961-65), American business grew big. What began as small, family-owned enterprises gobbled up competitors right and left and grew into massive corporations called “trusts“—first Standard Oil, then many others in railroads, banking, utilities, and other industries. Allen notes that “by 1900 the census showed that there were no less than 185 industrial combinations in existence.” Their success boosted the economy and set off wild speculation in the securities markets. “The center of gravity of American industrial control was moving, and the direction of its movement was immensely significant. It was moving toward Wall Street.” Allen adds: “That aptest commentator of the day, Finley Peter Dunne’s ‘Mr. Dooley,’ described Morgan as now being able to say to one of his office boys, ‘Take some change out iv th’ damper an’ r-run out an’ buy Europe for me.'”

The Progressives and the muckrakers

Beginning shortly before the turn of the twentieth century, “muckrakers” such as Ida M. Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens exposed the abuses through investigative journalism. Self-identified Progressives moved to curb Wall Street’s many abuses through laws limiting the financiers’ freedom of action. And the federal government under Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson began to enforce antitrust law that, one by one, broke up some of the very biggest of the ventures. (Roosevelt thundered about “malefactors of great wealth,” although his efforts to do anything about them seemed half-hearted.) But the Progressive movement was spent by the 1920s. The titans of Wall Street and Big Business simply invented clever new devices to work around the laws, such as they were. And successive Republican administrations during the Roaring Twenties declined to rein in the wild speculation that led to the stock market Crash of 1929. The US government in the years leading up to 2007 was equally ineffectual, so it should be no surprise why the Great Recession happened.

Contrasting Big Business in 1929 with today’s

“In 1929,” Allen reports, “there were over three hundred thousand non-financial corporations in the country.” Today, there are 32.5 million. Then, “the biggest two hundred of these giants controlled nearly half of all the corporate wealth and did over two-fifths of the business in the non-financial field.” Now, according to Fortune magazine, “Fortune 500 companies represent two-thirds of the U.S. GDP with $13.7 trillion in revenues, $1.1 trillion in profits, $22.6 trillion in market value, and employ 28.7 million people worldwide.” In other words, despite everything done over the course of the twentieth century to regulate business, the private sector was more concentrated and the biggest companies more powerful than they’d been in 1929 after a decade of runaway speculation. Is it really hard to understand why the Great Recession happened?

Forerunners of the tech giants

Does any of that sound alien today in the age of Google, Apple, Facebook, and Microsoft? In a world where the managers of the top hedge funds take home pay of a billion dollars or more every year? Does the “pro-business” orientation of the Reagan, Clinton, Bush, and Trump administrations sound notably different from those of the men at the helm of the nation in the 1920s? And do the reforms introduced in the 1960s and under Barack Obama seem to have made enough of a difference to prevent another major economic reversal? Economists say they haven’t.
The men who defined capitalism as we know it today

Much of Allen’s argument rests on his study of the men he identifies as central to the story. Their stories are revealing as we seek to understand why the Great Recession happened. In chronicling events during the first phase of the tale, from roughly 1890 to 1920, he cites ten individuals. Fifty make the list for the period 1920 to 1935. Most of the names on the larger list have vanished into the mists of history, no doubt because with few exceptions they were all losers in the Wall Street casino of the 1920s. Not so with those Allen points to in the earlier period, whom I’ve grouped into three categories. Consider how many of these ten names are still familiar today. And take note that, with one exception, they all died at least ninety-nine years ago. Yet they all have Wikipedia entries in 2021.

J. Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913), the grand old man of Wall Street. Allen calls him “Old Jupiter.” Architect of United States Steel, International Harvester, General Electric, and other market-dominating corporations. As Wikipedia notes, he “dominated corporate finance on Wall Street throughout the Gilded Age.” He was widely quoted to insist to an inquisitive reporter who asked him whether he owed the public an explanation about the stock market panic he had helped cause that “‘I owe the public nothing.'” His bank morphed into today’s JPMorgan Chase & Co. through many, many mergers over the years. Today, it’s by far the biggest bank in the US.

George F. Baker (1840-1931), Morgan’s right-hand-man. President of the First National Bank whom Allen describes as “solid, tenacious, and silent.” According to Wikipedia, “at his death he was estimated to be the third richest man in the United States, after Henry Ford and John D. Rockefeller.” As TIME magazine said of him in its 1924 cover story, “True, he is twice as rich as the original J. P. Morgan, having a fortune estimated at 200 millions. True, at the age of 84 when he has retired from many directorates, he dominates half a dozen railroads, several banks, scores of industrial concerns.”

James Stillman (1850-1915), “the brilliant and cold-blooded president of the National City Bank,” forerunner of today’s Citibank. Under his leadership, the bank may have become the biggest in the Western Hemisphere and was certainly the biggest in the US. As an investigation by the House of Representatives revealed, “the indirect influence of Morgan, Baker, Stillman, and their aides was prodigious.”

Jacob H. Schiff (1847-1920), German-born Jewish American banker, businessman, and philanthropist. In Allen’s words, “the shrewd and kindly head of the banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.” Foremost Jewish leader in the United States for the last four decades of his life. At first, a rival to J. P. Morgan, later a close collaborator.

John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), founder of Standard Oil, which trustbusters spun off into companies that today have the names ExxonMobil, Marathon Petroleum, Amoco, and Chevron, among others. The world’s richest man in his day. Some scholars estimate he would be worth $400 billion today, although I’ve seen other estimates putting the total at around $175 billion, which is slightly less than the net worth reported for Jeff Bezos of Amazon and Elon Musk of Tesla and SpaceX.

Edward H. Harriman (1848-1909), who built a nationwide railroad empire on the backs of the Union Pacific Railroad through mergers and stock market operations. J. P. Morgan called him “that little fellow Harriman.” The old man’s contempt notwithstanding, Allen points out, “Harriman may thus be regarded as two men in one—a sharp financier on the make, and an extraordinary railroad builder.” He was the father of Averell Harriman, one of the “Wise Men” who dominated US foreign policy in the 1950s and 60s.

The investors and speculators

William K. Vanderbilt (1849-1920), a grandson of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt. He was “the indolent chief representative of a family still powerful in the railroad and investment world.” Vanderbilt managed his family’s railroad investments and was active in horse-racing. His daughter Consuelo marrried Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough, a close friend of his first cousin Winston Churchill.

William Rockefeller (1841-1922), John D.’s younger brother, a cofounder of Standard Oil who turned to speculating in securities. Wikipedia: “He helped to build up the National City Bank of New York, which became Citigroup. He was also part owner of Anaconda Copper Company, which was the fourth-largest company in the world in the late 1920s.”

Henry Huttleston Rogers (1840-1909), a leader at Standard Oil and active in the gas industry, copper, and railroads. According to his biographer: “pitiless in business deals, in his personal affairs he was warm and generous.” Wikipedia: “After 1890, he became a prominent philanthropist, as well as a friend and supporter of Mark Twain and Booker T. Washington.” But in business he was contemptuous of any effort to look into his affairs. In one court case, he “refused to admit knowing where the offices of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana were” and added “‘It is quite immaterial to me what the Supreme Court of Missouri desires me to say to them, other than what I have testified.'”

James R. Keene (1838-1913), “a stock exchange operator of commanding skill and prestige.” He was a Wall Street stockbroker and, like William Vanderbilt, a major thoroughbred race horse owner and breeder.

Still famous, a century later

You’ll note that every one of these ten men was born between 1837 and 1850. And with the single exception of John D. Rockefeller Sr. (who was retired by then) they had all passed from the scene by the beginning of the 1920s. Yet even after the passage of nearly two centuries what these men did in their lifetimes set the scene for the Great Depression. And their impact has continued to the present day, when the American economy still reflects attitudes they held and legislation they influenced so very long ago. Yes, during the Progressive Era, the New Deal, and again in the 1960s and beyond, the Federal government moved to regulate the conduct of Wall Street and Big Business. But in almost every meaningful respect, the system the Robber Barons began to build in the late nineteenth century endures to this day. It’s called capitalism, and we in the United States experience a particularly freewheeling variety of the system.

For more than three decades, Frederick Lewis Allen (1890-1954) edited Harper’s Magazine. Under his aegis, Harper’s held sway as one of America’s preeminent intellectual journals. He was the author of six books of history and biography, of which The Lords of Creation was the second to be published. Allen held a Master’s degree from Harvard, where he taught for a time before his first job as an editor at age twenty-four at the Atlantic Monthly. . more

Telegraph and Texas Register

TELEGRAPH AND TEXAS REGISTER. The Telegraph and Texas Register, later variously known as the weekly, tri-weekly, or daily Telegraph, was the first newspaper in Texas to achieve a degree of permanence. The paper was begun on October 10, 1835, at San Felipe de Austin by Gail Borden, Jr., Thomas H. Borden, and Joseph Baker. It became the official organ of the Republic of Texas, which was organized a few months later. By December 14 the paper claimed a circulation of 500. The advance of Antonio López de Santa Anna's force compelled the publishers to retire after issuing their paper on March 24, 1836. On April 5 Baker withdrew from the firm to join the army. The press was removed to Harrisburg, and the issue for April 14 was being readied when publication was again interrupted by the Mexicans, who captured the printers and threw the press into Buffalo Bayou. During the summer of 1836 Gail Borden obtained a new press in Cincinnati and resumed publication of the Telegraph at Columbia, to which place the Congress of the Republic was summoned. The first Columbia number, issued on August 2, 1836, contained a copy of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, which had been available to very few up to that time. By the end of October the paper had 700 subscribers, besides doing the public printing. On April 11, 1837, the Telegraph was removed on board the Yellow Stone to Houston, the new capital. The first Houston issue was printed on May 2, 1837. Important changes in the management and ownership of the Telegraph had been made. Thomas Borden sold his interest to Francis Moore, Jr., on March 9, and Gail Borden conveyed his share to Jacob W. Cruger on June 20, 1837. Under Moore's editorial control and Cruger's business management, the Telegraph became the unofficial link between the government and the people. The partnership continued until 1851, when Cruger sold to Moore.

Moore conducted the Telegraph until 1854, when he sold it to Harvey H. Allen, a younger brother of Augustus C. and John K. Allen. The Telegraph continued as a weekly until April 30, 1855, when a tri-weekly edition was launched, but Allen's conduct of the paper was not satisfactory. A stock company purchased it in 1856. The new owners selected Edward H. Cushing to take charge of the paper by a vigorous editorial policy, he succeeded in restoring the Telegraph to preeminence among Texas papers. Cushing eventually acquired all the stock and become sole owner. From 1861 to 1865 the Telegraph encountered the same difficulties as other Confederate papers, particularly shortage of newsprint. Cushing resorted to printing on wallpaper and wrapping paper. When the federal forces closed the Mississippi River, Cushing organized a pony express to gather and forward the news, which was issued as rapidly as possible either in regular or extra editions. So many extras were issued that on February 6, 1864, the Daily Telegraph replaced the Tri-Weekly Telegraph. Cushing spent the summer of 1865 in the North, completing arrangements for up-to-date mechanical equipment for his paper and carefully studying the temper of the North. On his return he advised the South that the contest was in fact ended and counseled acquiescence. This advice was resented, and Cushing sold his paper to a syndicate but retained the job printing department. This was the first of a series of changes in ownership and policy of the Telegraph that ended in its demise.

The new owners of the Telegraph placed the paper in charge of C. C. Gillespie, who reversed the policy of Cushing. The paper rapidly lost ground, however, and the owners quickly disposed of their holding to William J. Hutchins. Hutchins made James G. Tracy, former foreman of the Telegraph office, business manager but retained Gillespie as editor. Disappointed in his hopes for recuperation in the fortunes of the paper, Hutchins in 1867 sold it to William G. Webb. Webb again reversed the policy of the Telegraph, becoming almost as submissive as Gillespie had been opposed to the ruling powers. This change in policy met with indifferent support, and the Telegraph suspended publication in the fall of 1873. In March 1874 the Telegraph was revived by Allen C. Gray, supported by an able editorial corps, and for a time it attained the largest circulation ever before had by any Houston paper. Nevertheless, a number of causes, together with impatient creditors, again forced a suspension of publication on February 11, 1877, and the old Telegraph finally ceased to exist.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Joe B. Frantz, Newspapers of the Republic of Texas (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1940). Mary Glasscock Frazier, Texas Newspapers during the Republic (March 2, 1836-February 19, 1846) (M. Journ. thesis, University of Texas, 1931). Julia Inez Harris, Houston Telegraph (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1924). Marilyn M. Sibley, Lone Stars and State Gazettes: Texas Newspapers before the Civil War (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1983). Dudley Goodall Wooten, ed., A Comprehensive History of Texas (2 vols., Dallas: Scarff, 1898 rpt., Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1986).

Article reprinted from the Handbook of Texas Online, courtesy of the Texas State Historical Association

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