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T27 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage

T27 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage



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T27 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage

The T27 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage was an attempt to adapt the fuselage of the M5 Light Tank to carry an 81mm mortar. Two versions were produced, the T27 and T27E1. They both used the same basic layout, with the turret removed and an open fighting compartment created in the centre of the tank. An armoured superstructure was added to build up the height of the fighting compartment by 18in.

On the T27 the mortar was carried quite high, and protruded above the superstructure. On the T27E1 it was lowered and was entirely hidden within the superstructure. In both cases tests showed that there was very little space within the vehicle, both for the crew and to store mortar rounds (this was also a problem with the M5 gun tank). Pictures of the T27 show the mortar taking up most of the space within the fighting compartment. Both the T27 and T27E1 were cancelled in April 1944. Work then moved onto the T29 4.2in Mortar Motor Carriage, but this was no more successful.


History [ edit | edit source ]

The half-track design had been evaluated by the US Ordnance department using Citroën-Kégresse vehicles. The Cavalry arm of the US Army found that their wheeled armored scout cars had trouble in rainy weather due to weight and high ground pressure.

In 1938, the White Motor Company took the Timken rear bogie assembly from a T9 half-track truck and added it to an M3 Scout Car, creating the T7 Half-Track Car. ΐ] This vehicle was woefully underpowered, and when a further requirement came down from US Army artillery units in 1939 for a prime mover (artillery tractor), a vehicle with an uprated engine was devised, then designated the Half Track Scout Car T14. By 1940, the vehicle had been standardized as the M2 Half-Track car. The M2 design was recognised as having the potential for general mechanized infantry use and with a larger body the M3 Half Track was created. Both the M2 and M3 were ordered into production in late 1940. M2 contracts were placed with the Autocar Company, White and Diamond-T. The first vehicles were received by the army in 1941.

It was supplied to artillery units as prime mover and ammunition carrier for the 105mm howitzer, for armored infantry units to carry machine gun squads, and to armored reconnaissance units. Α] For the latter it was to be an interim solution, until more specialized vehicles could be fielded.

Between 1942 and 1943, these vehicles, just like the larger M3s, would receive a number of modifications to the drive train, engine, and stowage, among other things.

Total production of M2 and derivatives was about 13,500 units. Later, to meet the needs of the Lend-Lease program, the International Harvester Company was brought in to manufacture vehicles similar to the M2, these M9 vehicles adding a further 3,500 units.


Usage

The first M-2s were fielded in 1941, and would be used in the Philippines, North Africa, and Europe by the U.S. Army, and around the Pacific by the United States Marine Corps. About 800 M-2 and M-9 halftracks were sent to the Soviet Union. Many remaining vehicles initially destined for lend-lease were transferred to other U.S. allies, primarily in South America. These vehicles often received a number of upgrades designed at extending service life. Nicaragua's National Guard received 10 M-2s in 1942, which saw heavy action during the 1978-79 Nicaraguan Revolution. The Argentine Army retired its last upgraded M-9 in 2006 and donated them to Bolivia.


Mortar, 81mm M1

Authored By: Silver Fox | Last Edited: 02/04/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The American M1 81mm Mortar, like the upcoming M2 60mm Mortar, was based on a French design by Edgar William Brandt (1880-1960). The M1 was a derivative of the French mle 27/31 system (itself an improved form of the Stokes Trench Mortar of World War 1 fame) and slightly altered to suit American needs. The M1 became the standard American battalion mortar of World War 2 and saw action in the Korean War as well as the Vietnam War until it was eventually replaced by the M29 - a lighter 81mm system with a longer reach.

As a weapons engineer, Frenchman Brandt was responsible for a slew of advancements in the field of mortars and projectiles that led to the development of varying 60mm, 81mm and 120mm systems while at the same time furthering HEAT rifle grenade and HEAT-warhead anti-tank weaponry technology. Brandt's designs were heavily copied throughout World War 2 and beyond, making them commonplace throughout the globe in the years following.

The US Army had already garnered experience in the use of the 3" Mk I Stokes Trench Mortar during World War 1. The type stayed in circulation in the post-war US Army though several attempts to find a replacement ultimately came to naught. As a result, the US Army decided to work instead on bettering ammunition. In 1931, the US Army acquired four of the Brandt 81mm prototypes, and, after some slight modifications to suit American use and production methods, the mortar appeared formally as the "81mm Mortar, M1" in Army nomenclature. License production was handled by A.B. Farquhar Company, Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing and Watervliet Arsenal.

Like the "lighter" M2 system, the M1 was made up of three main components - the firing tube, bipod and baseplate. When completely assembled, the M1 weighed in at 136lbs. Weight was distributed as follows: the tube made up 44.5lbs while the mount was 46.5lbs. The base plate itself was 45lbs. Overall length of the system measured in at 3 feet, 9.5 inches. Muzzle velocity was rated at 700 feet per second out of the smoothbore firing tube. A sustained rate-of-fire of 18 rounds per minute was possible, with the operator loading the M1 by dropping the prepared projectile into the muzzle. A firing pin at the base of the firing tube activated the projectile's primer and ignition cartridge (the projectile was dropped down the tube "fuze-end" first) and the corresponding action launched the round at the predetermined desired angle. The operator(s) need only to protect themselves after the projectile was dropped in the tube. This allowed for an excellent sustained rate-of-fire - a maximum rate-of-fire of 30- to -35 rounds per minute was achievable. The M1 maintained a minimum range of 200 yards and a maximum range of 3,300 yards. Elevation was +40 to +85 with a traverse of 14-degrees. The operator utilized an M4 collimator sight (same as on the M2 60mm derivative) fitted to the bipod for accuracy calculations and adjustments.

The M1 could utilize a variety of ammunition types beginning with the M43A1 Light HE (High-Explosive) round. The 6.87lb M43A1 maintained a fragmentation radius of 25 yards and featured a surface detonating fuze. The 10.6lb M45 and M45B1 Heavy HE rounds greater explosive punch at the expense of range (2,558 yards), this working from a delayed fuze. The 15lb M56 was another Heavy HE round of even greater explosive firepower with a more limited range of 1,300 yards. The fuze on these particular projectiles was adjustable as needed. Shells were stabilized along their flight path via fixed fins at their rear sections to compensate for the M1's use of a smoothbore firing tube (i.e. no rifling for inherent course trajectory).

Besides the conventional explosive rounds, the M1 could also make use of the 10.7lb M57 FS white smoke round out to 2,470 yards or the 10.74lb M57 WP (White Phosphorous), this also ranged out to 2,470 yards. The White phosphorous round was also equally adept at attacking infantry as an incendiary munition. The M301 was a useful illuminating round with an adjustable fuse and 60-second burn duration and deployable parachute, the latter helping to retard the projectile's fall.

Transport of the heavy M1 was solved through the use of a two-man hand cart designated simply as the "Hand Cart M6A1". This allowed the least possible amount of crew to move the mortar system about, allowing transport of the weapon into defensive or offensive positions as required with relatively little pain. Another option was to have the system towed via mule by way of a specially-devised harness. Despite its inherent weight drawback of the M1 kit, the firepower of the mortar offset any negatives especially when supporting artillery would not be made available in a given operation. A well-trained and experienced mortar team could engage targets in defilade, trenches, ravines or on slopes and, as such, proved lethal against enemies in both the European and Pacific theaters of war.

For another method of transportation, the M1 could most effectively be driven around on the back of an M3 Halftrack. These half-tank/half-truck "mutt" vehicles held the inglorious task of transporting just about anything under the wartime sky. From the rear of the M3, the M1 could be fired without the need for the crew and weapon to disembark from the vehicle, affording a certain level of "hit-and-run" tactical advantage. At any rate, this method of fielding the M1 proved most useful to any company commander.

A shortened version of the M1 was unveiled as the T27 "Universal" but this only appeared in limited numbers and was never ordered for mass production. A special tube extension system was also devised for the base M1, though this was hardly used in practice.

The M1 81mm Mortar was complimented in the field by the lighter M2 60mm Mortar beginning in 1940. The M2 was a more "portable" device that allowed for efficient close-support indirect fire and could operate closer to the actions of frontline infantry, its portability being a major plus.


Contents

The concept of a half-track vehicle had been evaluated by the US Army Ordnance Department using Citroën-Kégresse vehicles.

The Cavalry branch of the US Army found that their wheeled armored scout cars had trouble in wet terrain due to their high ground pressure.

In 1938, the White Motor Company took the Timken rear bogie assembly from a T9 half-track truck and added it to an M3 scout car, creating the T7 half-track car. [3] This vehicle was significantly underpowered. When a further requirement came down from US Army artillery units in 1939 for a prime mover to be used as an artillery tractor, a vehicle with an uprated engine was developed, which was designated the half-track scout car T14.

By 1940, the vehicle had been standardized as the M2 half-track car. The M2 design was recognized as having the potential for use by mechanized infantry, which spawned the larger-bodied M3 half-track. Both the M2 and M3 were ordered into production in late 1940, with M2 contracts let to Autocar, White and Diamond T. The first vehicles were received by the Army in 1941.

The M2 was supplied to armored artillery units as the prime mover and ammunition carrier for the 105mm howitzer, and to armored infantry units for carrying machine gun squads. It was also issued to armored reconnaissance units [4] as an interim solution until more specialized vehicles could be fielded.

Between 1942 and 1943, both the M2 and M3 would receive a number of modifications to the drive train, engine, and stowage, among other things.

Total production of M2 and derivatives by White was about 13,500 units. To meet the needs of Lend-Lease to the Allies, the International Harvester Company produced 3,500 units of the M9. The M9 was the same as the IH-produced M5 but with different internal stowage and apart from using IH mechanical components the M9 was longer than the M2.

The first M2s were fielded in 1941, and would be used in the Philippines, North Africa, and Europe by the U.S. Army, and around the Pacific by the Marines. About 800 M2 and M9 half-tracks were sent to the Soviet Union. Many remaining vehicles initially destined for Lend-Lease were transferred to other U.S. allies, primarily in South America. These vehicles often received a number of upgrades designed at extending service life. The Nicaraguan National Guard received 10 M2s in 1942, which saw heavy action during the 1978-79 Nicaraguan Revolution. The Argentine Army retired its last upgraded M9 in 2006 and donated them to Bolivia.

In 1947, the Finnish heavy vehicle producer Vanajan Autotehdas bought 425 M2 half-track vehicles from the Western Allied surplus stocks located in France and Germany. The vehicles were delivered without armor. [5] Some 359 units were converted into field and forest clearing vehicles, some were scrapped for parts and 60 units were equipped with conventional rear axles and converted into 4×4 or 4×2 trucks. They were badged as Vanaja VaWh. The last units were sold in 1952. [6]


US Army [ edit | edit source ]

  • M1911 .45 Cal Pistol
  • M1 Carbine
  • M1A1 Carbine
  • M1 Garand
  • M1 Garand (w/ M7)
  • M1903A1 Springfield
  • M1A1 Thompson
  • M3 Grease Gun
  • M1918 B.A.R.
  • M1919A6 LMG
  • M1A1 Bazooka
  • M9A1 Bazooka
  • M1919A4 Medium Machinegun
  • M1917A1 Browning Heavy Machinegun
  • M2HB Browning Heavy Machinegun
  • 57mm L/50 M1 Anti-tank Gun
  • 76mm L/50 M5 Anti-tank Gun
  • 60mm Mortar M2
  • 81mm Mortar M1
  • M2A1 Halftrack
  • M3 Halftrack
  • M3A1 Halftrack
  • M4A1 Mortar Halftrack
  • M21 Mortar Halftrack
  • M5A1 Light Tank (w/ Rhino)
  • M4 Sherman (mid)
  • M4 Sherman (late) (w/ Rhino)
  • M4(105) Sherman (early) (w/Rhino)
  • M4(105) Sherman (mid)
  • M4A1 Sherman (mid)
  • M4A1 Sherman (late) (w/Rhino)
  • M4A1(76W) (early)
  • M4A3 Sherman (w/Rhino)
  • M4A3(75W) Sherman (early) (w/Rhino)
  • M4A3(75W) Sherman (mid)
  • M4A3(76W) Sherman (early)
  • M4A3(105) Sherman (early) (w/Rhino)
  • M4A3(105) Sherman (mid)
  • P-51B Mustang Fighter Bomber
  • P-51D Mustang Fighter Bomber
  • P-47D Thunderbolt Fighter Bomber
  • M2 4.2 Inch Mortar
  • M1A1 75mm Pack Howitzer
  • M2A1 105mm Howitzer
  • M3 105mm Howitzer
  • M1 4.5 Inch Gun
  • M1 155mm Howitzer
  • M1A1 155mm Gun "Long Tom"
  • M1 8 Inch Gun
  • M1 8 Inch Howitzer
  • M1 240mm Howitzer
  • T27 Xylophone Rocket
  • T27E2 Xylophone Rocket
  • T34 Calliope
  • 127mm Destroyer Naval Guns
  • 152mm Light Cruiser Naval Guns
  • 203mm Heavy Cruiser Naval Guns
  • 305mm Battleship Naval Guns
  • 356mm Battleship Naval Guns

German Army [ edit | edit source ]

  • P38 Pistol
  • Karabiner 98k
  • Kar98k Schiessbecher
  • Kar98k Zf/4
  • Gewehr 43
  • Gewehr 43 Zf/4
  • MP40
  • MP44
  • MG34
  • MG42
  • Panzerfaust 30k
  • Panzerfaust 30
  • Panzerschreck RPzB 54
  • MG34 Heavy Machinegun
  • MG42 Heavy Machinegun
  • sGrW34 8cm Mortar
  • leIG18 7.5cm Infantry Gun
  • sIG 22 15cm Infantry Gun
  • 5cm PaK 38
  • 7.5cm PaK 40
  • 7.62cm PaK 36(r)
  • 8.8cm FlaK 36
  • 8.8cm PaK 43
  • 8.8cm PaK 43/41
  • Sd.Kfz 250/3
  • Sd.Kfz 250/9
  • Sd.Kfz 250/10
  • Sd.Kfz 251/1 (Ausf. D)
  • Sd.Kfz 251/3 (Ausf. D)
  • Sd.Kfz 251/7 (Ausf. D)
  • Sd.Kfz 251/9 (Ausf. D) "Stummel"
  • Sd.Kfz 251/10 (Ausf. D)
  • Panzer IVG (late)
  • Panzer IVG (latest)
  • Panzer IVH (early)
  • Panzer IVH (late)
  • Panzer IVJ (early)
  • Panzer VD Panther (late)
  • Panzer VA Panther (early)
  • Panther VA Panther (mid)
  • Panzer VA Panther (late)
  • Panzer VG Panther (early)
  • Panzer VIE Tiger (mid)
  • Panzer VIE Tiger (late)
  • Marder IIIM
  • Jagdpanzer IV (early)
  • Jagdpanzer IV (mid)
  • Jagdpanzer IV (late)
  • StuG IIIG (early)
  • StuG IIIG (mid)
  • StuG IIIG (late)
  • StuH 42 (early)
  • StuH 42 (mid)
  • sGrW42 120mm Mortar
  • FK38 75mm Howitzer
  • leFH18M 105mm Howitzer
  • sFH18 150mm Howitzer
  • K18 170mm Gun
  • MRS18 210mm Howitzer "Brummbär"
  • 15cm Nebelwerfer 41
  • 21cm Nebelwerfer 42
  • 28cm Nebelwerfer 41
  • 30cm Nebelwerfer 42

USA Nomenclature du Matériel



Gun / Howitzer Motor Carriage Model-Year Series (1917 - 1925)
M1920 Mk IV 105mm Gun Motor Carriage (1920)
M1920 Mk VI 75mm Gun Motor Carriage (1920)
M1920 Christie 155mm Gun Motor Carriage (1921)
M1921 Mk IX 155mm Gun Motor Carriage (1921)
M1921 Christie 4.7" (120mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun Motor Carriage (1921)
M1921 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (1921)
M1922E Mk X 4.7" (120mm) Gun Motor Carriage (1922)

Light Tank M-Series (1928 - 1941)
M1 Cavalry Combat Car / Light Tank (1928)
M2 Cavalry Combat Car / Light Tank (1935)
M3 Stuart 37mm Gun Light Tank (1941)

Medium and Heavy Tank M-Series (1939 - 1942) / Tank and Armored Car M-Series (1942 - 1952)
M2 Medium Tank (1939)
M3 Lee / Grant 75mm Gun Medium Tank (1941)
M Sherman 75mm/76mm Gun / 105mm Howitzer Medium Tank (1942)
M5 Stuart 37mm Gun Light Tank (1942)
M6 3" (76mm) Gun Heavy Tank (1941)
M7 75mm Gun Medium Tank (1942)
M8 Greyhound 37mm Gun Light Armored Car (1943)
M20 Armored Utility Car (1943)
M22 'Locust' 37mm Gun Light Tank (1943)
M24 Chaffee 75mm Gun Light Tank (1944)
M26 Pershing 90mm Gun Heavy / Medium Tank (1944)
M31 Tank Recovery Vehicle (1943?)
M32 Tank Recovery Vehicle (1943)
M33 Prime Mover (1944)
M34 Prime Mover (1944)
M35 Prime Mover (1944)
M38 Wolfhound 37mm Gun Light Armored Car (1945)
M39 Armored Utility Vehicle (1944)
M41 Walker Bulldog 76mm Gun Light Tank (1953)
M42 Sherman Flamethrower Tank
M44 Armored Utility Vehicle (1945)
M45 Pershing 105mm Howitzer Medium Tank (1945)
M46 Patton 90mm Gun Medium Tank (1949)
M47 Patton 90mm Gun Medium Tank (1951)
M48 Patton 90mm/105mm Medium Tank (1952)
M49 Otter Amphibious Cargo/Troop Carrier

Gun / Howitzer Motor Carriage, Mortar Carrier M-Series (1941 - 1952)
M3 Half-Track 75mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1941)
M4 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
M4 Half-Track 81mm Mortar Carrier (1942)
M5 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
M6 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
M7 'Priest' 107mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942)
M8 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942Saumur
M9 3" Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
M10 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
M12 155mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1942)
M13 Half-Track 0.50" Twin Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
M14 Half-Track 0.50" Twin Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1942)
M15 Half-Track 37mm Gun / 37mm/0.50" Multiple Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
M16 Half-Track 0.50" Multiple Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
M17 Half-Track 0.50" Multiple Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
M18 Hellcat 76mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1943)
M19 Twin 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1945)
M21 Half-Track 81mm Mortar Carrier (1944)
M34 Half-Track 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1951)
M36 Jackson / Slugger 90mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1944)
M37 'Priest' 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
M40 155mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1944)
M41 'Gorilla' 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
M42 Duster Twin 40mm Self-Propelled Gun / Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1951)
M43 8" (203mm) Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
M44 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1952)

Armored Support Vehicle M-Series (1943 - 1945)
M2 High Speed Tractor
M4 High Speed Tractor (1943)
M5 High Speed Tractor (1943)
M6 High Speed Tractor (1944)
M7 Snow Tractor (1944)
M8 High Speed Tractor (1950)
M28 Weasel Light Cargo Carrier (1942)
M29 Weasel Light Cargo Carrier (1943)
M30 Cargo Carrier (1942)

Mixed Office, Chief of Ordnance (1952 - 1962) / Army Materiel Command (AMC) (1962+)


Combat Vehicle M-Series (1952 - c1969)
XM45 Flamethrower Service Vehicle
M50 Ontos Multiple 105mm Recoiless Rifle Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1955)
M51 Heavy Recovery Vehicle (1954)
M52 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1955)
M53 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1952)
M54 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer
M55 8" (203mm) Self-Propelled Howitzer (1956)
M56 Scorpion 90mm Self-Propelled Gun (1953)
M58 Wolf Smoke Generator Carrier (1995)
M59 Armored Personnel Carrier (1953)
M60 105mm Gun / 152mm Gun-Launcher Main Battle Tank (1960)
XM62 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1962) **
'XM66' 152mm Gun/Launcher Main Battle Tank (Early Designation for the M60A2)
M67 Patton Flamethrower Tank
'M70' (Reserved for MBT-70 152mm Gun/Launcher Main Battle Tank) (1967)
M75 Armored Infantry Vehicle / Armored Personnel Carrier (1952)
M76 Otter Amphibious Cargo Carrier (1951)
M84 107mm Self-Propelled Mortar / Mortar Carrier (1957)
M85 Prime Mover (1957)
XM87 Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System (1987)
M88 Armored Recovery Vehicle
M91 2.5-ton Multiple Chemical Rocket Launcher Truck (1962) (AMC Series)
M93 Fox Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System (NBCRS) (1998)
M102 Combat Engineer Tank / Armored Engineer Vehicle (1956)
M103 120mm Gun Heavy Tank (1956)
XM104 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1961)
XM104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge (HAB)
M106 107mm Self-Propelled Mortar (1961)
M107 175mm Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1962)
M108 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1962)
M109 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1962)
M110 8" (203mm) Self-Propelled Howitzer (1962)
M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (1960)
M114 Command and Reconnaissance Carrier (1963)
M116 Husky Amphibious Cargo Carrier (1961)
M125 81mm Self-Propelled Mortar (1964)
M132 Flamethrower Carrier (1963)
XM138 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1966)
M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS)
M162 Vulcan 20mm Gun Air Defense System
M163 Vulcan 20mm Gun Air Defense System (1969)
XM166 Twin 40mm Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery
M167 Towed Vulcan 20mm Gun Air Defense System (VADS)
XM179 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (c1969) *
XM233 TOW Carrier
XM246 Twin 35mm Gun Division Air Defense System (DIVAD)
M247 Sergeant York Twin 40mm Gun Division Air Defense System (DIVAD)
M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Carrier (1982)

Office, Chief of Ordnance Support Vehicle M-Series (1932 -1962)
(Other support vehicles under the Office, Quartermaster General until c1952)

M1 8-ton Artillery Prime Mover (1932)
M1 Cunningham Armored Car (1934)
M1 Scout Car (1935)
M1 Half-Track Car (1939)
M2 Scout Car (1939)
M2 Half-Track Car (1941)
M2 Half-Track Truck
M3 Scout Car (1937)
M3 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1941)
M4 Scout Car (1937)
M5 Half-Track Car
M5 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1942)
M6 1.5-ton Bomb Service Truck
M7 2-ton Trailer
M8 2-ton Armored Trailer (1942)
M9 Half-Track Car (1943)
M9 45-ton Tank Transporter Trailer (1942)
M10 1.4-ton Ammunition Trailer
M13 2-ton Trailer
M14 Trailer
M15 Dragon Wagon 45/50-ton Tank Transport Semi-Trailer (1943)
M17 2-ton Trailer
M18 2-ton Trailer
M19 Tank Transporter (1942) (M20 Tractor & M9 Trailer)
M20 12-ton Tractor Truck (1942)
M21 4-ton Ammunition Trailer
M22 2-ton Trailer
M23 8-ton Ammunition Trailer (1944)
M24 1-ton Ammunition Trailer
M25 Dragon Wagon Tank Transporter (M26 Tractor & M15 Trailer) (1943)
M26 Dragon Wagon 12-ton Tractor Truck (1943)
M27 2.5-ton Bomb Service Truck (CCKW-based)
M31 5-ton Honest John Rocket Launcher Truck
M33 3-ton Lacrosse Missile Fire Control System Trailer
M34 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1950)
M35 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1953)
M36 2.5-ton Cargo Truck
M37 3/4-ton Cargo Truck (1951)
M38 Jeep 1/4-ton Utility Truck (1952)
M39 5-ton Truck
M41 5-ton Cargo Truck (1952)
M42 3/4-ton Command and Reconnaissance Truck
M43 3/4-ton Ambulance Truck
M44 2.5-ton Truck Chassis
M45 2.5-ton Truck Chassis
M46 2.5-ton Truck Chassis
M47 2.5-ton Dump Truck
M48 2.5-ton Tractor Truck
M49 2.5-ton Fuel Tanker Truck
M50 2.5-ton Water Tanker Truck
M51 5-ton Dump Truck (1952)
M51 Air Defense Trailer
M52 5-ton Tractor Truck (1952)
M53 3/4-ton Truck Chassis
M54 5-ton Cargo Truck
M55 5-ton Cargo Truck (1956)
M56 3/4-ton Cargo Truck (c1952)
M57 2.5-ton Truck Chassis
M58 2.5-ton Tuck Chassis
M59 2.5-ton Dump Truck (1951)
M60 2.5-ton Light Wrecker Truck
M61 6-ton Asphalt Distributor Truck
M62 5-ton Wrecker Truck
M63 5-ton Medium Truck
M64 5-ton Cargo Van Truck
M78 SAM Launcher Trailer
M100 1/4-ton Cargo Trailer
M101 3/4-ton Cargo Trailer
M102 1.5-ton Trailer Chassis
M103 1.5-ton Trailer Chassis
M104 1.5-ton Cargo Trailer
M105 1.5-ton Cargo Trailer
M106 1.5-ton Water Tank Trailer
M107 1.5-ton Water Tank Trailer
M108 2.5-ton Crane Truck
M109 2.5-ton Lacrosse Missile Shop Van Truck
M114 3.5-ton Trailer
M115 1/4-ton Trailer Chassis
M116 3/4-ton Trailer Chassis
M117 7-ton Semi-Trailer Chassis
M118 6-ton Cargo Semi-Trailer
M119 6-ton Cargo Van Semi-Trailer
M121 10-ton Cargo Truck
M123 10-ton Tractor Truck (1955)
M124 2.5-ton Radio Repair Shop Truck
M125 10-ton Cargo Truck (1957)
M126 12-ton Semi-Trailer Chassis
M127 12-ton Semi-Trailer
M128 12-ton Van Semi-Trailer
M129 12-ton Van Semi-Trailer
M131 12-ton Fuel Tanker Semi-Trailer
M132 2.5-ton Medical Van Truck
M133 2.5-ton Cargo Truck Chassis
M135 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1951)
M139 5-ton Truck Chassis
M142 1.25-ton Shelter Carrier Truck
M143 2-ton Bomb Transport Trailer
M146 6-ton Shop Van Semi-Trailer
XM147 Super DUKW 5-ton Amphibious Truck
XM148 Gull 5-ton Amphibious Truck (c1952) (Redesignated from T118)
M149 1.5-ton Water Tanker Trailer
XM150 2.5-ton Tank Truck (1953)
M151 Jeep 3/4-ton Military Utility Tactical Truck (MUTT) (1960)
M152 3/4-ton Ambulance Truck
XM157 Drake 8-ton Amphibious Truck (1956)
M162 60-ton Construction Trailer
M164 6-ton Office Van Trailer
M170 Jeep 1/4-ton Ambulance Truck (1953)
M172 15/25-ton Semi-Trailer
M185 2.5-ton Repair Van Truck
XM190 10-ton Cargo Truck (1948) (Redesignated from T57)
XM193 15-ton Heavy Cargo Truck (1951) (Redesignated from T58)
XM194 15-ton Tank Transporter Tractor Truck (1951) (Redesignated from T58)
XM195 3/4-ton Cargo Truck
M196 4-ton Trailer Dolly
M197 6-ton Trailer Dolly
M198 8-ton Trailer Dolly
M199 18-ton Trailer Dolly
M200 2.5-ton Generator Trailer Chassis
M201 3/4-ton Telephone Maintenance Truck (1954)
M207 2.5-ton Generator Trailer Chassis
M211 2.5-ton Cargo Truck
M215 2.5-ton Wrecker Truck
M216 2.5-ton Fuel Tanker Truck
M217 2.5-ton Fuel Tanker Truck
M220 2.5-ton Shop Van Truck
M221 2.5-ton Tractor Truck
M222 2.5-ton Water Tanker
M242 3-ton NIKE Fire Control System Van Semi-Trailer
M243 2-ton NIKE Fire Control/Acquisition Radar Trailer
M244 2-ton NIKE Fire Control System Trailer
M246 5-ton Aircraft Wrecker Truck
XM247 1.4-ton Wrecker Truck (c1951)
M248 NIKE Tracking Station Trailer
M249 Front Atomic Cannon Heavy Gun-Lifting Tractor Truck (1952)
M250 Rear Atomic Cannon Heavy Gun-Lifting Tractor Truck (1952)
XM253 1/2-ton Jeep Utility Truck (1955)
M258 NIKE Radar Tracking Van Trailer
M259 NIKE-Hercules Director Station Van Trailer
M260 NIKE Antenna Trailer
M261 NIKE Missile Trailer
M262 NIKE Launching Control Trailer
M267 2.5-ton Generator Trailer Chassis
M268 5-ton Fuel Tanker Truck
M269 12-ton Cargo Semi-Trailer
M270 12-ton Wrecker Semi-Trailer
M271 3.5-ton Bolster Trailer
XM272 2.5-ton Artillery Prime Mover Truck (1953)
XM273 5-ton Artillery Prime Mover Truck (c1952)
M274 Mule 1/2-ton Utility Carrier (1956)
M275 2.5-ton Tractor Truck
M280 Truck Mounted Servicing Platform (c1955)
XM282 5-ton Cargo Truck (1953)
XM283 3/4-ton Cargo Truck (1952)
M289 5-ton Honest John Missile Launcher Truck
M291 5-ton Expandable Van Truck
M292 2.5-ton Expandable Van Truck
M295 6-ton Semi-Trailer Chassis
M296 2.5-ton Utility Trailer
M304 Electrical Shop Trailer
M308 Water Tanker Semi-Trailer
M310 3.5-ton Cable Reel Trailer
M313 6-ton Expandable Van Semi-Trailer
M323 Tracking Station Van Semi-Trailer
M324 Doppler Station Van Trailer
M328 2.5-ton Bridge Transporter Truck
M332 1.5-ton Ammunition/Cargo Trailer
M342 2.5-ton Dump Truck
M342 2.5-ton Dump Truck
M345 2.5-ton Trailer
XM346 60-ton Semi-Trailer (c1956)
M347 15-ton Refrigeration Van Semi-Trailer
M348 3-ton Dump Truck
M348 3-ton Electric Van Semi-Trailer
M349 7.5-ton Refrigeration Van Semi-Trailer
M353 3.5-ton Trailer Chassis
M354 18-ton Trailer Dolly
XM357 Teracruzer 8-ton Rolligon Vehicle (1955)
M359 2.5-ton Electric Van Shop Semi-Trailer
M363 3-ton Trailer Dolly
M364 6-ton Trailer Dolly
M365 10-ton Trailer Dolly
M367 1/4-ton Telephone Cable-Splicer Maintenance Trailer
M373 3-ton Electric Van Semi-Trailer
XM375 25-ton Twinassist Tank Transporter Tractor Truck (1956)
XM376 50-ton Front Tank Transporter Tractor Truck (1957)
XM377 50-ton Rear Tank Transporter Tractor Truck (1957)
XM381 2-ton Cargo Truck (1955)
M382 6-ton Electric Van Trailer
M383 6-ton Electric Van Trailer
XM384 3/4-ton Jeep Utility Truck (1956)
M386 5-ton Honest John Missile Launcher Truck
M387 2.5-ton Lacrosse Missile Launcher Truck (1953)
M388 Tanker Semi-Trailer
M389 1-ton Missile Test Body Trailer
M390 2-ton Trailer Chassis
M393 3-ton Dental Van Semi-Trailer
M394 3-ton Medical Van Semi-Trailer
M395 3-ton Medical Van Semi-Trailer
M398 2.5-ton Lacrosse Missile Launcher Truck (1958)

Unified Vehicle M-Series (c1958+)
XM401 Teracruzer 10-ton Rolligon Vehicle (1957)
M405 Honest John Missile Handling Unit Trailer
M406 NIKE Radar Trailer
XM408 3/4-ton Jeep Cargo Truck (1958)
XM409 10-ton Cargo Truck (1956)
XM410 2.5-ton Power Wagon Truck (1957)
M416 1/4-ton Cargo Trailer
M422 'Might-Mite' 1/4-ton Utility Vehicle (1959)
M424 NIKE Missile Director Trailer
M425 4-ton Tractor Truck (1944)
M426 4-ton Tractor Truck (1945?)
M428 NIKE Tracking Station Trailer
M429 3-ton Trailer Dolly
M430 3-ton Trailer Dolly
M431 3-ton Trailer Dolly
M432 3-ton Trailer Dolly
XM434 3.5-ton Cargo Truck (1957)
XM437 Goer 15-ton Cargo Truck (1959)
XM438 Goer 15-ton Tanker Truck (1959)
M442 5-ton Cargo Truck
XM443 Super Mule 3/4-ton Utility Carrier (1950s)
M447 6-ton Shop Van Trailer
M448 1.5-ton Shop Van Trailer
XM453 5-ton Amphibious Cargo Truck (1960)
M454 2.5-ton MPQ-4 Radar Trailer Chassis
M457 6-ton Mechanical Weapon Maintenance Trailer
M458 6-ton Electrical Weapon Maintenance Trailer
M459 6-ton Connecting 6-ton Weapon Maintenance Trailer
XM474 Radar Carrier/Pershing Missile/Warhead
XM476 Pershing Servicing Equipment Carrier
XM501 HAWK SAM Launcher
M504 Sergeant Missile Transporter-Erector-Launcher Trailer
M508 6-ton Shop Van Trailer
M512 2.5-ton Shop Van Truck
M514 1-ton Trailer Chassis
M520 Goer 8-ton High Mobility Load Carrier Truck (1972)
M521 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer
XM521 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1959)
XM523 25-ton Tractor Truck (1960s)
M527 Sergeant Missile Motor and Guidance Transport Trailer
M529 1-ton NIKE Trailer
XM531 Muskrat 1-ton Amphibious Utility Truck (c1961)
M532 2.5-ton Laundry Trailer
M533 2.5-ton Bakery Oven Trailer
M536 2.5-ton Laundry Trailer Chassis
M537 2.5-ton Bakery Oven Trailer Chassis
M538 2.5-ton Dough-Mixing Bakery Trailer Chassis
M543 Armored Recovery Vehicle
M543 5-ton Medium Wrecker Truck (1960)
XM546 Mauler SAM Carrier (1963)
M548 Cargo Carrier (1960s)
XM549 Quad Trac 5-ton Mobility Test Vehicle (1963)
M551 Sheridan 152mm Gun-Launcher Armored Reconnaissance Airborne Assault Vehicle (ARAAV) (1966)
M553 Goer 8-ton Wrecker Truck (c1970)
XM554 Goer 15-ton Wrecker Truck
M559 Goer 8-ton Tanker Truck (c1972)
M561 Gamma Goat 1.5-ton Cargo Truck (Early 1970s)
M564 10-ton Electric Van Trailer
M565 Front Electric Shop Trailer Dolly
M566 Rear Electric Shop Trailer Dolly
M569 1/4-ton Trailer Chassis
XM571 Dynatrac Articulated Utility Carrier
M572 2.5-ton Little John Missile Transloader Truck
M577 Command Post Carrier (1963)
M578 Armored Light Recovery Vehicle
M579 Armored Recovery Vehicle
M580 1/4-ton Trailer Chassis
M581 1.5-ton Electric Van Trailer
M582 2-ton Electric Van Trailer
M583 2-ton Electric Van Trailer
M584 Front Trailer Dolly
M586 Water Tanker Trailer
M589 Front Electric Shop Trailer Dolly
M600 Rear Electric Shop Trailer Dolly
M601 1-ton Cargo Truck (c1965)
M602 2.5-ton Cargo Truck
M606 1/4-ton Jeep Utility Truck
M607 2.5-ton Shop Van Truck (1950s)
M610 2.5-ton? Water Tank Truck (1950s)
M611 2.5-ton? Fuel Tanker Truck (1950s)
M613 2.5-ton Shop Van Truck (1950s)
M614 2.5-ton Dump Truck (1950s)
M615 1-ton Ambulance Truck
M616 2.5-ton Truck Chassis (1950s)
M617 2.5-ton Truck Chassis (1950s)
M618 2.5-ton Truck Chassis (1950s)
M619 2.5-ton Truck Chassis (1950s)
M620 2.5-ton Truck Chassis (1950s)
M621 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1950s)
M622 2.5-ton? Fuel Tanker Truck (1950s)
M623 2.5-ton? Van Truck (1950s)
M624 2.5-ton Dump Truck (1951)
M625 1.5-ton Water Tanker Trailer
M627 56.5-ton Tank Transporter Trailer
M656 5-ton Cargo Truck (c1964)
XM664 12-ton Fuel Tanker Trailer (See M131)
M667 Lance SSM Transporter-Erector-Launcher
M674 15-ton NIKE Trailer
M676 1-ton Truck (1950s)
M677 1-ton Truck (1950s)
M678 Carryall Truck (c1958)
M679 Ambulance Truck (1950s)
M681 15-ton Van Trailer
M682 15-ton Van Trailer
M683 15-ton Van Trailer
XM688 Lance SSM Transloader
M689 Transport Shelter Trailer Dolly Set
M690 Front Transport Shelter Trailer Dolly
M691 Rear Transport Shelter Trailer Dolly
XM696 Light Armored Recovery Vehicle
XM701 Mechanized Infantry Combat Vehicle (MICV-65) (1965)
XM705 Cargo / Troop Carrier Truck (c1967)
M706 Commando Light Armored Vehicle (1964)
M707 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Knight Fire Support Vehicle
M708 3/4-ton Dump Truck (Late 1960s)
M709 3/4-ton Platform Utility Trailer
XM711 3/4-ton Recovery Truck
M715 Gladiator 1.25-ton Cargo Truck (1967)
M716 1/4-ton Cable Splicer Trailer
M718 Jeep 1.5-ton Ambulance Truck (1960s)
M720 3-ton Transport Shelter Trailer Dolly Set
M721 3-ton Front Transport Shelter Trailer Dolly
M722 3-ton Rear Transport Shelter Trailer Dolly
XM723 Mechanized Infantry Combat Vehicle (MICV) (1974)
M724 1.25-ton Maintenance Van Truck (c1967)
M725 1.25-ton Ambulance Truck (c1967)
M726 1.25-ton Telephone Maintenance Truck (c1967)
M727 HAWK SAM Launcher
M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle (1965)
XM729 LACIC Armored Assault Vehicle (1966)
M730 Chaparral SAM Carrier (1969)
M732 20mm Vulcan Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery
XM733 RACI Armored Assault Vehicle (1966)
XM734 Infantry Combat Carrier (c1964)
XM735 105mm Main Battle Tank (Redesignated M48A4)
XM736 105mm Main Battle Tank (Redesignated M48A5)
XM737 Ambulance Truck
XM741 Vulcan 20mm Gun Air Defense System (VADS) (See M163)
XM742 Armored Recovery Vehicle *
XM743 Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge *
XM745 165mm Gun Combat Engineer Vehicle *
M746 22.5-ton Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET) Truck (c1968)
M747 60-ton Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET) Semi-Trailer
M748 5-ton Bolster Truck
M749 6-ton Parts Storage Van Semi-Trailer
M750 6-ton Repair Shop Van Trailer
M751 2.5-ton Bolster Truck
M752 Lance SSM Transporter-Erector-Launcher
M754 HAWK SAM Launcher
XM755 Armored Assault Vehicle (1966)
M756 2.5-ton Pipeline Construction Truck
M757 5-ton Tractor Truck (Mid 1960s)
XM759 Marginal Terrain Vehicle / Cargo Carrier
XM761 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1961)
M762 3/4-ton Trailer
M763 2.5-ton Telephone Maintenance Truck
M764 2.5-ton Earth-Boring Machine/Pole-Setter Truck
XM765 Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) (c1967)
XM778 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1967)
XM782 2.5-ton Instrument Repair Shop Truck (c1967)
M784 2.5-ton Dump Truck
M785 2.5-ton Bolster Truck
M786 1/4-ton Pipeline Maintenance Truck
M787 1/4-ton Telephone Line Maintenance Truck
M788 1/4-ton Earth-Boring/Pole-Setting Maintenance Truck
M790 Pershing Missile Transporter-Erector-Launcher Trailer
M791 5-ton Pershing Missile Fire Control Unit Truck (Mid 1960s)
M792 1.25-ton Gamma Goat Ambulance Truck (early 1970s)
M793 Trailer
M794 4-ton Field Laundry Trailer Chassis
M795 4-ton Dough Mixer Trailer Chassis
M796 4-ton Bolster Trailer
XM800T/W Armoured Reconnaissance Scout Vehicle (ARSV) (1974)
M802 Pershing Radar Course Direction Central Trailer
XM803 152mm Gun/Launcher Main Battle Tank
M805 Pershing Radar Course Direction Central Trailer Dolly
M806 Armored Recovery Vehicle Light (1964)
XM808 Twister Armored Car (1970)
M809 5-ton Cargo Truck Chassis (1970)
M810 5-ton Cargo Truck Chassis (1970)
M811 5-ton Cargo Truck Chassis (1970)
M812 5-ton Bridge Transporter Truck (1970s)
M813 5-ton Cargo Truck (1970s)
M814 5-ton Cargo Truck (1970s)
M815 5-ton Bolster Truck (1970s)
XM815 105mm Gun Main Battle Tank (Redesignated XM1)
M816 5-ton Medium Wrecker Truck
M817 5-ton Dump Truck
M818 5-ton Tractor Truck
M819 5-ton Tractor/Wrecker Truck
M820 5-ton Van Expandable Truck
M821 5-ton Bridge Transport Truck
M825 Jeep 1.5-ton Recoiless Rifle Carrier (1960s)
M831 Container Dolly Set
M832 General Container Dolly Set
M840 MUST Hospital Dolly Set
M857 Fuel Tanker Trailer
M870 42-ton Construction Equipment Transport Trailer
M871 22.5-ton Bulk/Container Transport Semi-Trailer
M872 34-ton Bulk/Container Transport Semi-Trailer
M876 10-ton Earth-Boring Machine/Pole-Setter Truck (1975)
M877 Goer 8-ton Cargo Truck (c1972)
M878 5-ton Yard Tractor Truck
M880 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M881 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M882 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M883 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M884 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M885 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M886 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) Ambulance Truck (1975)
M887 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) Chassis (c1975)
M888 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) Telephone Maintenance Truck (c1975)
M889 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M890 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M891 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M892 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (c1975)
M893 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) Ambulance Truck (c1975)
M901 Improved TOW Vehicle (ITV)
XM911 1.25-ton? High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle?
M911 Commercial - Heavy Equipment Transporter System (HETS) (Mid 1970s)
M915 20-ton Tractor Truck (1977)
M916 20-ton Tractor Truck (c1977)
M917 20-ton Dump Truck (c1977)
M918 20-ton Bituminous Distributor Truck (c1977)
M919 20-ton Concrete Mobile Mixer Truck (c1977)
M920 Tractor Truck (c1977)
M923 5-Ton Cargo Truck
M924 5-ton Cargo Truck
M925 5-ton Cargo Truck
M926 5-ton Cargo Truck
M927 5-ton Cargo Truck
M928 5-ton Cargo Truck
M929 5-ton Dump Truck
M930 5-ton Dump Truck
M931 5-ton Tractor Truck
M932 5-ton Tractor Truck
M933 5-ton Tractor Truck
M934 5-ton Expandable Van Truck
M935 5-ton Expandable Van Truck
M936 5-ton Tractor Truck
M939 5-ton Cargo Truck
M940 5-ton Truck Chassis
M941 5-ton Truck Chassis
M942 5-ton Truck Chassis
M944 5-ton Truck Chassis
M945 5-Ton Truck Bridge Transporter
XM963 2.5-ton Product Improvement Package Cargo Truck (1979)
M966 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored TOW Carrier
M967 Fuel Tanker Trailer
M969 Fuel Tanker Trailer
M970 Fuel Tanker Semi-Trailer
M971 10-ton Van Semi-Trailer
M973 Small Unit Support Vehicle (SUSV)
XM975 Roland Air Defense System
M977 10-ton High Mobility Tactical Truck / Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) (c1978)
M978 10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Fuel Tanker
M979 5-ton Trailer
M981 Fire Support Team Vehicle (FIST-V)
M983 10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Tractor
M984 10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Wrecker
M985 10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT)
M986 Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM) Launcher Semi-Trailer
M987 Fighting Vehicle System Carrier (c1980)
XM988 Division Air Defense System Chassis
M989 11-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Ammunition Trailer (HEMAT)
M992 Field Artillery Ammunition Supply Vehicle (FAASV) / Fire Direction Center Vehicle (FDCV)
M993 Multiple Rocket Launch System (MLRS) Carrier (1982)
M996 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored Ambulance
M997 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored Ambulance
M998 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Cargo/Troop Carrier
M1000 70-ton Heavy Equipment Transporter System (HETS) Trailer
XM1001 10-ton General Support Rocket System Tractor Truck (Early 1980s?)
XM1002 10-ton General Support Rocket System Wrecker Truck (Early 1980s?)
M1006 Semi-Trailer Van
M1008 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) (1984)
M1009 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV)
M1010 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) - Ambulance Truck
XM1010 Bradley Electronic Fighting Vehicle System
M1015 Armored Electronic Coutermeasures and Reconnassance System / Electronic Warfare Shelter Carrier
M1025 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored Armament Carrier
M1026 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored Armament Carrier
M1028 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) Shelter Carrier
M1031 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) Chassis
M1035 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Ambulance
M1036 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored TOW Carrier
M1037 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Shelter Carrier
M1038 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Cargo/Troop Carrier
XM1040 Fast Attack Vehicle (1981)
XM1041 Fast Attack Vehicle (1981)
M1042 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Shelter Carrier
M1043 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Up-Armored Armament Carrier
M1044 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Up-Armored Armament Carrier
M1045 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Up-Armored TOW Carrier
M1046 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Up-Armored TOW Carrier
M1047 Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) (1982)
XM1050 Field Artillery Ammunition Supply Vehicle (FAASV)
M1059 Smoke Generator
XM1060 Robotic Breaching Assault Tank (ROBAT)
M1062 Tanker Trailer
M1064 120mm Self-propelled Mortar
M1065 Small Unit Support Vehicle (SUSV)
M1066 Small Unit Support Vehicle (SUSV)
M1067 Small Unit Support Vehicle (SUSV)
M1068 Standard Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) Carrier
M1069 1.25-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Prime Mover/Tractor
M1070 22.5-ton Heavy Equipment Transporter System (HETS) Tractor
XM1070 Electronic Fighting Vehicle (EFV) System
M1074 16.5-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Palletized Load System (PLS) Tractor Truck
M1075 16.5-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Palletized Load System (PLS) Tractor Truck
M1076 16.5-ton Palletized Load System (PLS) Trailer
M1077 Dismountable Cargo Faltrack
M1078 2.5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Cargo Truck
M1079 2.5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Shop Van
M1080 2.5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Truck Chassis
M1081 2.5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Low Velocity Airdrop System Cargo Truck
M1082 2.5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Trailer
M1083 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Cargo Truck
M1084 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Cargo Truck
M1085 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Cargo Truck
M1086 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Troop/Cargo Carrier Truck
XM1087 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Expandable Van Trailer
M1088 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Tractor
M1089 5.5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Wrecker
M1090 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Dump Truck
M1091 Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Fuel/Water Tanker
M1092 Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Truck Chassis
M1093 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Low Velocity Airdrop System Cargo Truck
M1094 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Low Velocity Airdrop System Dump Truck
M1095 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Trailer
M1096 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) Truck Chassis
M1097 2.2-ton Heavy High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Cargo/Troop Carrier
XM1101 Large Area Mobile Protected Smoke System (1992)
M1102 10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Palletized Load System (PLS) Tractor Truck
XM1108 Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light (MTVL) Universal Carrier
M1109 Up-Armored High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
M1113 2.6-ton Expanded Capacity High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
M1114 1.1-ton High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Up-Armored Armament Carrier
M1116 Up-Armored High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
M1117 Guardian Armored Security Vehicle (ASV)
M1120 13-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Load Handling System (LHS)
M1121 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Armored TOW Missile Carrier
M1123 2.2-ton Heavy High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Cargo/Troop Carrier
M1126 Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle
M1127 Stryker Reconnaissance Vehicle
M1128 Stryker Mobile Gun System
M1129 Stryker 105mm/120mm Mortar Carrier
M1130 Stryker Commander's Vehicle
M1131 Stryker Fire Support Vehicle
M1132 Stryker Engineer Squad Vehicle
M1133 Stryker Medical Evacuation Vehicle
M1134 Stryker Anti-Tank Guided Missile Carrier
M1135 Stryker Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle
M1145 Up-Armored High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
M1151 Up-Armored High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
M1152 Up-Armored High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
M1977 10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HMETT) Common Bridge Transporter (CBT)
XM2001 Crusader 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer
XM2002 Crusader Re-Supply Module Tracked
XM2003 Crusader Re-Supply Module Wheeled

New Combat Vehicle M-Series (1978+)
M1 Abrams 105mm/120mm Gun Main Battle Tank (1978)
M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle (1981)
M3 Bradley Cavalry Fighting Vehicle (1981)
XM4 Command and Control Vehicle
XM5 Ground Based Common Sensor Carrier
M6 Bradley 25mm Gun/Missile Linebacker Air Defense Vehicle
XM7 Fire Support Team Vehicle
M8 105mm Armored Gun System (1995)
M9 Armored Combat Earthmover

Artillery M-series:

Ordnance Corps Artillery Model-Year Series (1888 - 1925)
M1888 12" (305mm) Coastal Defense Gun (1888)
M1888 10" Coastal Defense Gun (1888)
M1888 8" (203mm) Coastal Defense Gun (1888)
M1890 12" (305mm) Coastal Defense Mortar (1890)
M1895 16" (406mm) Coastal Defense Gun (1895)
M1895 12" (305mm) Coastal Defense Gun (1895)
M1895 10" Coastal Defense Gun (1895)
M1897 6" Coastal Defense Gun (1897)
M1897 5" Rapid Fire Coastal Defense Gun (1897)
M1897 75mm Field Gun (1897)
M1898 3" (76mm) Gun (1898)
M1900 6" Coastal Defense Gun (1900)
M1902 3" (76mm) Gun (1902)
M1903 6" Coastal Defense Gun (1903)
M1903 3" (76mm) Gun (1903)
M1905 6" Heavy Field Gun (1905)
M1905 3" (76mm) Field Gun (1905)
M1906 4.7" (120mm) Field Gun (1906)
M1907 14" Coastal Defense Gun (1907)
M1908 12" (305mm) Mortar (1908)
M1908 6" Coastal Defense Gun (1908)
M1909 14" Coastal Defense Gun (1909) (Fort Drum)
M1910 14" Coastal Defense Gun (1910)
M1910 10" Coastal Defense Gun (1910)
M1911 3" (76mm) Rapid Fire Coastal Defense Gun (1911)
M1912 12" (305mm) Coastal Defense Mortar (1912)
M1916 75mm Field Gun (1916)
M1916 37mm Trench Gun (1916)
M1917 GPF 155mm Field Howitzer (1917)
M1917 GPF 155mm Field Gun (1917)
M1917 3" (76mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (1917)
M1917 75mm Field Gun (1917)
M1918 240mm Field Howitzer (1918)
M1918 GPF 155mm Field Howitzer (1918)
M1918 4.7" (120mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (c1921)
M1918 3" (76mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (1918)
M1919 16" (406mm) Coastal Defense Gun (1919)
M1920 16" (406mm) Coastal Defense Gun (1920)
M1920 14" Railway Gun (1920)
M1920 8" (203mm) Field Howitzer (1920)
M1920M1 155mm Field Howitzer (1920)
M1920 105mm Field Howitzer (1920)
M1920 75mm Pack Howitzer (1920)
M1921 105mm Field Howitzer (1921)
M1922 75mm Pack Howitzer (1922) (Redesignated M1)
M1923 75mm Pack Howitzer (1923)
M1925 105mm Field Howitzer (1925)

Ordnance Corps (1927 - 1962) / Army Materiel Command Artillery M-Series (1962+)
M1 75mm Pack Howitzer (1927) (Redesignated M116)
M1 105mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (1927)
M1 105mm Field Howitzer (1928)
M1 90mm (Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat) Gun
M1 155mm Long Tom Field Gun (1938) (Redesignated M59)
M1 4.7" (120mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (c1940)
M1 90mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (1940) (T2-based)
M1 37mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (1940)
M1 155mm Field Howitzer (1941) (Redesignated M114)
M1 4.5" Field Howitzer (1941)
M1 57mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (1941)
M1 40mm Automatic (Anti-Aircraft) Gun (1941)
M1 240mm Field Howitzer (1943)
M1 75mm Field Gun (1943)
M1 8" (203mm) Field Howitzer (1944) (Redesignated M115)
M1 8" (203mm) Field Gun (1944)
M1 6" Coastal Defense Gun (1946)
M2 105mm Anti-Aircraft Gun
M2 105mm Field Howitzer (1940) (Redesignated M101)
M2 90mm Dual-Purpose Anti-Aircraft Gun (1943)
M2 Long Tom 155mm Field Howitzer (1944) (Redesignated M59)
M2 8" (203mm) Field Howitzer (1944?)
M3 3" (76mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (1928)
M3 105mm Anti-Aircraft Gun
M3 37mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (1938)
M3 105mm Field Howitzer (1943)
M4 57mm Field Anti-Tank Gun
M4 105mm Field Howitzer
M5 3" (76mm) Field Anti-Tank Gun (1941)
M8 75mm Pack Howitzer (1930s)
M18 Field Howitzer
M21 4.5" Multiple Rocket Launcher (1952)
M51 Skysweeper 75mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (1950s)
M59 Long Tom 155mm Field Howitzer (1944) (Redesignated from M1, M2 Later Redesignated M114)
M65 Atomic Cannon 280mm Field Howitzer (1952)
M98 107mm "Howtar" Mortar (1962)
M101 105mm Field Howitzer (1940) (Redesignated from M2)
M102 105mm Lightweight Field Howitzer (1963)
M114 155mm Field Howitzer (Redesignated from M1, M2, M59 See M139)
M115 8" (203mm) Field Howitzer (1944) (Redesignated from M1)
M116 75mm Pack Howitzer (1927) (Redesignated from M1)
M117 90mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (M2-based?)
M118 90mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (M1-based?)
M119 105mm Lightweight Field Howitzer (1991)
XM124 105mm Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer
M139 155mm Field Howitzer (M114-based)
M198 155mm Field Howitzer (1978)
XM204 155mm Soft-Recoil Field Howitzer (c1978)
XM240 105mm Lightweight Field Howitzer (1970s)
M777 155mm Lightweight Field Howitzer (LW 155) (2004)

And finally, here are the old T-series pilots: ** Mock-up only.


Office, Chief of Ordnance T-Series Test Vehicles & Artillery (1925 - 1958)

T1 57mm/75mm Gun Medium Tank (1925)
T1 Cunningham 37mm Gun Light Tank / Cavalry Combat Car (1926)
T1 Cunningham Light Cargo Carrier (1928)
T1 Light Armored Car (1928)
T1 Cunningham Track Development Chassis / Light Tank (1928)
T1 Ford Track Development Chassis (1928)
T1 Cunningham 4.2" Mortar Motor Carriage (1929)
T1 Cunningham 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (1930)
T1 Christie (M1931) Cavalry Combat Car / Medium Tank (1931)
T1 3" (76mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun Mount / Gun Motor Carriage (1931)
T1 Scout Car (1932)
T1 Half-Track Car (1932)
T1 Half-Track Truck (1933)
T1 Squad Car (1935)
T1 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage (1935)
T1 Armored Command Car (1937) *
T1 240mm Field Howitzer (1940)
T1 Multiple 0.50" Gun Motor Carriage (1940)
T1 3" (76mm) Gun Heavy Tank (1941)
T1 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer prototype (1941)
T1 Half-Track Multiple 0.50" Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1941)
T1 Half-Track 40mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T1 Observation Post Tender (1941)
T1 Prime Mover (c1942)
T1 Tank Transporter (c1943) **
T2 Medium Armored Car (1927)
T2 8" (203mm) Field Howitzer (1927)
T2 Cunningham Track Development Chassis / Light Tank (1929)
T2 8-ton Artillery Prime Mover (c1930)
T2 Cunningham 47mm Gun Medium Tank (1930)
T2 Christie Convertible Combat Car / Light Tank (1931)
T2 Scout Car (1932)
T2 Half-Track Car (c1932) *
T2 Half-Track Truck (1933)
T2 Light Tank / Cavalry Combat Car (1934)
T2 Squad Car (1935)
T2 Cunningham 4.2" Mortar Motor Carriage (1935)
T2 Cunningham Light Cargo Carrier (1936)
T2 90mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (1938) (See M1)
T2 75mm Field Gun (c1943) (See M1)
T2 8" (203mm) Field Gun (1944) (See M1)
T2 Observation Post Tender (1941)
T2 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T2 57mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (1941) (See M1)
T2 Tank Recovery Vehicle (1942)
T3 Light Armored Car (1928)
T3 8-ton Artillery Prime Mover (c1931)
T3 (M1931) Christie Medium Tank (1931)
T3 75mm Truck Mount / Gun Motor Carriage (c1931?)
T3 Scout Car (c1933) *
T3 Half-Track Truck (1933)
T3 Squad Car (1936)
T3 Light Tank (1936)
T3 155mm Long Tom Field Gun (1938)
T3 8" (203mm) Field Howitzer (1939)
T3 4.7" (120mm) Field Howitzer (1940)
T3 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (1940)
T3 Mack Half-Track Truck (1941)
T3 155mm Field Howitzer (1941)
T3 10-ton Tank Recovery Truck (c1942)
T3 3" (76mm) Field Anti-Tank Gun (1946)
T4 155mm Field Gun (1930)
T4 8-ton Artillery Prime Mover (c1931)
T4 Cunningham Armored Car (1932)
T4 Scout Car (c1933) *
T4 Half-Track Truck (c1933/1934)
T4 Medium Tank / Cavalry Combat Car (1933)
T4 Tank Transporter (c1944)
T4 High Speed Tractor Wrecker (c1946)
T5 Christie Convertible Armored Car / Light Tank (1931)
T5 Scout Car (1933)
T5 Half-Track Truck (1935)
T5 Cavalry Combat Car (c1935)
T5 37mm Gun Medium Tank (1937)
T5 4.2" Mortar Motor Carriage (1938)
T5 Tank Recovery Vehicle (c1943)
T5 High Speed Tractor Wrecker (c1946)
T6 'Franklin' Armored Car (1931)
T6 Half-Track Scout Car (1934)
T6 Light Tank (1939)
T6 75mm Gun Medium Tank (1941)
T6 155mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1941)
T6 Tank Recovery Vehicle *
T6 Tank Recovery Vehicle (1944)
T6 Tank Recovery Vehicle
T6 Half-Track Car (c1933) *
T6 High Speed Tractor Wrecker (c1952)
T7 'Franklin' Armored Car (1927)
T7 1.5-ton Light Prime Mover Truck (1933)
T7 Scout Car (1934)
T7 Half-Track Truck (1936) *
T7 Convertible Combat Car / Light Tank (1938)
T7 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1938)
T7 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T7 57mm/75mm Light Tank (1942)
T8 Armored Car (1930)
T8 1.5-ton Light Prime Mover Truck (1933)
T8 Scout Car (c1935) *
T8 Command Car (1935)
T8 3" (76mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (c1931) (Redesignated T9)
T8 Half-Track Truck (1936)
T8 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (c1940)
T8 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T8 Reconnaissance Vehicle (1944)
T8 Tank Transporter (1945)
T8 90mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (1945)
T8 105mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (1946)
T9 Armored Car (1929)
T9 3" (76mm) Anti-Aircraft Gun (c1931)
T9 Scout Car / Communications Car / Artillery Car (1935)
T9 Half-Track Truck (1937)
T9 37mm Gun Airborne Light Tank (1941)
T9 Armored Utility Vehicle (1945)
T9 Transporter (1950)
T10 Palmer Armored Car (1929)
T10 Scout Car *
T10 Half-Track Truck (c1937) *
T10 105mm Field Howitzer (1943)
T10 "Shot Tractor" / "Leaflet Tank" / "Cassock Tank" / Canal Defense Light Tank (c1944)
T10 Half-Track Twin 20mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1944)
T10 Transporter (1952)
T11 Armored Car (1934)
T11 Scout Car (c1935) *
T12 Armored Car (1933) *
T12 Scout Car (1935)
T12 Half-Track 75mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1941)
T12 Tank Recovery Vehicle (1944)
T13 Scout Car (1937)
T13 Armored Car (1941)
T13 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T13 10-ton Tractor (c1942)
T13 Armored Utility Vehicle (c1945) *
T13 90mm Anti-Tank Gun (1945)
T14 Half-Track Car / Personnel Carrier (1940)
T14 Armored Car (c1941) *
T14 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T14 Cargo Carrier (1942)
T14 "Super Sherman" Medium Assault Tank (1943)
T14 Tank Recovery Vehicle (1945)
T15 Armored Car (c1941) *
T15 Personnel Carrier (1942)
T15 90mm Gun Medium Tank
T15 Half-Track Truck (c1942)
T16 Armored Car (c1941) *
T16 Marmon-Herrington Light Tank (1942)
T16 4.5" (114mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1942)
T16 Prime Mover (1942)
T16 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1942)
T16 Universal Carrier (1943)
T16 Armored Utility Vehicle (1945)
T17 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1930s?)
T17 20mm Twin Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1930s?)
T17 Deerhound / Staghound 37mm Gun Medium Armored Car (1942)
T17 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942)
T17 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1943)
T17 Armored Car (1943)
T17 Half-Track Radio Carrier (1944)
T17 Tactical Air Control Party/Tactical Armored Command Post? (c1945)
T18 Half-Track Instrument Carrier (1942)
T18 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942)
T18 Boarhound 37mm Gun Heavy Armored Car (1942)
T18 Prime Mover
T18 Half-Track Truck (c1943) *
T18 Cargo Carrier (1943)
T18 Armored Utility Vehicle (1950)
T19 Half-Track 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942)
T19 37mm Gun Medium Armored Car (1942)
T19 Half-Track 81mm Mortar Carrier (1943)
T19 Half-Track Truck (1942)
T19 Light Armored Car (1943) **?
T20 Armored Car (1942) **
T20 Personnel Cargo Carrier (1943) *
T20 76mm/75mm Gun Medium Tank (1943)
T20 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Anti-Aircraft Artillery
T20 90mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (c1944)
T20 8-ton Cargo Truck (c1945)
T21 High Speed Tractor (1941)
T21 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T21 37mm Gun Light Armored Car (1942) (Formerly T43 37mm Gun Motor Carriage)
T21 Half-Track 4.2" Mortar Carrier (1943)
T21 36" (914mm) Little David Heavy Siege Mortar (1944)
T22 High Speed Tractor
T22 37mm Gun Motor Carriage / Light Armored Car (1942)
T22 75mm Gun Medium Tank (1943)
T22 75mm Anti-Aircraft Gun (1945)
T23 37mm Gun Motor Carriage / Light Armored Car (1942)
T23 High Speed Tractor
T23 76mm Medium Tank (1943)
T23 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (1946)
T24 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1941)
T24 Scout Car (1942)
T24 Personnel Carrier (1943)
T24 75mm Gun Light Tank (1943)
T25 Scout Car (1941)
T25 1/4-ton Armored Jeep (1943)
T25 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer
T25 90mm/105mm Gun Heavy Tank (1944)
T26 75mm Gun Motor Carriage
T26 Armored Command Car / Armored Utility Car (1943)
T26 90mm Gun Heavy Tank (1943)
T26 75mm Gun Light Tank (1943)
T26 12-ton Heavy Cargo Truck / Tank Transporter Tractor / Wrecker (1945)
T27 75mm Gun Motor Carriage (1941)
T27 37mm Gun Light Armored Car (1943)
T27 6-ton Tractor Truck (1943)
T27 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage / Mortar Carrier (1944)
T28 Half-Track Twin 0.50" Gun / 37mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1941)
T28 'Scooter' 37mm Gun Light Armored Car (1943)
T28 Half-Track Litter Carrier (1944)
T28 105mm Gun Super Heavy Tank (1945) (Redesignated T95 105mm Gun Motor Carriage)
T28 8-ton Heavy Cargo Truck (Late 1940s)
T29 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1942)
T29 75mm Gun Motor Carriage
T29 4.2" (107mm) Mortar Motor Carriage / Mortar Carrier
T29 20-ton Tractor Truck (Late 1940s)
T29 105mm Gun Heavy Tank (1947)
T30 Half-Track 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942)
T30 Armored Chemical Car (1943) *
T30 Cargo Carrier (1944)
T30 8-ton Tractor / Heavy Cargo Truck (1945)
T30 155mm Gun Heavy Tank (1948)
T31 Half-Track Personnel Carrier (1944)
T31 Cargo Carrier (1945)
T31 105mm Howitzer / 7.2" Rocket Demolition Tank (1945)
T32 25-pdr (88mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer
T32 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942)
T32 Half-Track Amphibian Cargo Carrier (c1944) *
T32 37mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (1944)
T32 90mm Gun Heavy Tank (1946)
T33 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T33 Cargo Tractor (1943)
T33 37mm Field Anti-Tank Gun (c1944)
T33 12-ton Heavy Cargo Truck (1947)
T34 Half-Track 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer
T34 Paddy Vehicle / Amphibious Cargo Carrier (1945)
T34 120mm Gun Heavy Tank (1949)
T35 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
T35 Flamethrower Tank (1944)
T35 4.2" (107mm) Mortar Carrier (1945)
T35 Amphibian Tractor (See LVT(A)2)
T35 25-ton Tractor Truck (1947)
T36 40mm Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T36 Iron Fireman Snow Cruiser Snow Tractor (1944)
T37 Half-Track 0.50" Multiple Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
T37 Light Tractor (1943)
T37 Amphibian Cargo Carrier (c1946)
T37 76mm Gun Light Tank (1949)
T38 Half-Track 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer *
T38 4.2" (107mm) Mortar Motor Carriage / Mortar Carrier
T39 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (1942)
T39 Armored Utility Vehicle
T39 Pioneer Tank (1948) **
T39 6.5" (1965mm) Gun Armored Engineer Vehicle (1951)
T39 165mm Gun Combat Engineer Tank (1955)
T40 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1941)
T40 90mm Medium Tank (1948)
T41 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer
T41 Armored Utility Tractor / Vehicle (1944)
T41 76mm Gun Light Tank (c1949)
T42 37mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1941)
T42 Cargo Tractor (1944)
T42 90mm Gun Medium Tank (1950)
T43 37mm Gun Motor Carriage (1942) (Redesignated T21 Light Armored Car)
T43 Cargo Tractor (c1944)
T43 Cargo Tractor (1949)
T43 120mm Gun Heavy Tank (1951)
T44 57mm Gun Motor Carriage
T44 Cargo Tractor (1949)
T45 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (c1942)
T45 Multiple 0.50" Gun Motor Carriage Trailer (1942)
T46 Amphibian Cargo Carrier (1950)
T47 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942?)
T47 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1942) (Formerly T17)
T47 3/4-ton Command and Reconnaissance Truck (1945)
T48 Half-Track 57mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
T48 90mm Gun Medium Tank (1951)
T49 57mm/75mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
T49 90mm Gun Light Tank
T50 Tank Recovery Vehicle
T51 25-pdr (88mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer
T51 5-ton Cargo Truck (1948)
T51 Heavy Armored Recovery Vehicle (1953)
T52 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Anti-Aircraft Artillery
T52 Tanker Trailer (1943)
T52 75mm Gun Searchlight Medium Tank (c1951)
T53 90mm Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T53 Fire Control Vehicle *
T53 3/4-ton Cross Country Carrier Truck (1949)
T54 Half-Track 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1942)
T54 5-ton Cargo Truck (1947)
T54 105mm Gun Medium Tank (1951)
T55 Cook Interceptor 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T55 2.5-ton Cargo Truck (c1948)
T55 Armored Utility Vehicle (1952)
T56 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
T56 Armored Utility Vehicle (1952)
T57 3" (76mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
T57 8-ton Cargo Truck (1948) (Redesignated XM190)
T57 120mm Gun Heavy Tank (1957)
T58 Half-Track Multiple 0.50" Gun Motor Carriage / Anti-Aircraft Artillery
T58 12-ton Cargo / Tank Transporter Tractor Truck (1951) (Redesignated XM193 and XM194)
T58 155mm Gun Heavy Tank (1958)
T59 Half-Track 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
T59 Armored Personnel Carrier (1952)
T60 Half-Track Multiple Gun Motor Carriage / Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
T60 Amphibian Cargo Carrier (1956)
T61 Half-Track 0.50" Multiple Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
T62 4.5" Rocket Motor Carriage (1942)
T62 81mm Mortar Carrier *
T63 105mm Mortar Carrier *
T64 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1943)
T64 107mm Mortar Carrier (c1951)
T65 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer
T65 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1943)
T65 Flamethrower Vehicle (1952)
T66 75mm Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T66 Flamethrower Tank (1950s)
T67 75mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1942)
T67 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1944)
T67 Flamethrower Tank (1960)
T68 Twin 40mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1942)
T68 Self-Propelled Flamethrower (1953)
T69 Multiple 0.50" Gun Motor Carriage (1943)
T69 90mm Gun Medium Tank (1955)
T70 76mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1943)
T70 Snow Tractor (1953)
T71 90mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1943)
T71 76mm Gun Light Tank (c1956) *
T72 76mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1943)
T72 Snow Tractor (1953)
T73 Half-Track 75mm Gun Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1943)
T73 Armored Infantry Vehicle (1952)
T74 Multiple 0.50" Gun Motor Carriage (1942)
T75 Multiple Rocket Motor Carriage / Launcher (1943)
T76 'Priest' 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1944)
T77 Multiple .50" Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1945)
T77 120mm Gun Medium Tank (c1957)
T78 Sno-Cat Snow Tractor (1954)
T81 4.2" (107mm) Mortar Motor Carriage / Mortar Carrier
T82 75mm/105mm? Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (c1943)
T82 81mm Mortar Carrier *
T83 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1944)
T83 105mm Mortar Carrier *
T84 8" (203mm) Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
T84 4.27" (107mm) Self-Propelled Mortar / Mortar Carrier
T85 Multiple 20mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1945)
T85 Cargo Tractor (1954)
T86 "Esch Device" Amphibious 75mm Gun Motor Carriage
T86 Cargo Tractor (1955)
T87 Amphibian 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage
T88 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1943)
T88 Armored Recovery Vehicle
T89 8" (203mm) Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
T92 240mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
T92 76mm Gun Light Tank (1956)
T93 8" (203mm) Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1945)
T93 Cargo Tractor (1954)
T94 Cargo Tractor (1957)
T95 105mm Gun Motor Carriage (1945) (Formerly T28 105mm Gun Super Heavy Tank)
T95 3/4-ton Cargo Truck (c1951)
T95 90mm/105mm/120mm Gun / 152mm Gun-Launcher Medium Tank (1957)
T96 105mm Gun Medium Tank (c1956) *
T97 155mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1952)
T98 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1950)
T99 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1950)
T100 Stinger Multiple .60" Motor Carriage / Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1950)
T101 90mm Self-Propelled Gun / Tank Destroyer (c1955)
T102 3/4-ton Bomb Handling Truck (c1952)
T106 105mm Recoilless Rifle Motor Carriage (1950)
T107 Amphibious Cargo Carrier (1954)
T108 8" (203mm) Self-Propelled Howitzer (1952)
T110 120mm Gun Heavy Tank (c1955) **
T113 Armored Personnel Carrier (1957)
T114 Command and Reconnaissance Carrier (1960)
T115 Armored Personnel Carrier / BAT Weapons Carrier (c1956) **
T116 Husky Amphibious Cargo Carrier (1958)
T117 Armored Personnel Carrier (1957)
T118 5-ton Amphibious Truck (c1952) (Later redesignated XM148)
T118 Combat Engineer Vehicle (1958)
T119 Light Armored Recovery Vehicle (c1959)
T120 Light Armored Recovery Vehicle (c1959)
T121 Recovery Vehicle
T121 Snow Tractor (c1951)
T122 1/4-ton Jeep Military Utility Tactical Truck (MUTT) (c1951) (Later redesignated XM151)
T122 High Speed Tractor (1959)
T123 4.5" Multiple Rocket Launcher (1952)
T125 81mm Self-Propelled Mortar
T129 6.5" Multiple Rocket Launcher (1952)
T130 Personnel Carrier
T133 90mm Anti-Tank Gun (1951)
T140 Twin 40mm Self-Propelled Gun /Anti-Aircraft Artillery (c1951?)
T140 105mm Anti-Aircraft Gun
T141 Twin 40mm Self-Propelled Gun / Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1951)
T146 240mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (Late 1940s) *
T147 8" (203mm) Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun (Late 1940s) *
T148 156mm Field Howitzer (1950)
T148 Dart Missile Launcher (c1958)
T149 Armored Anti-Tak Missile Carrier (c1957)
T162 175mm Gun Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer (1954)
T164 Multiple Rifle and Machine Gun Mount (1952) *
T165 Ontos Multiple 106mm Recoilless Rifle Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1952)
T166 106mm Recoilless Rifle Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer (1952)
T167 Multiple 106mm Recoilless Rifle Motor Carriage / Tank Destroyer *
T194 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (Mid-1950s)
T195 110mm / 105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1958)
T196 156mm / 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1959)
T223 1.5-ton Cargo/Weapons Carrier (1945)
T225 3/4-ton Utility Truck (1943)
T226 3/4-ton Utility Truck (c1943)
T233 3/4-ton Utility Car (1944)
T235 175mm Self-Propelled Gun (1958)
T236 203mm Self-Propelled Howitzer (1958)
T237 Cross-Country Carrier (c1947)
T245 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage / Self-Propelled Howitzer (1958)
T248 Vigilante? 37mm Gatling Towed Anti-Aircraft Artillery
T249 Vigilante 37mm Gatling Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (1960)
T257 81mm Self-Propelled Mortar (1958)


Contents

The half-track design had been evaluated by the US Ordnance department using Citroën-Kégresse vehicles.

The Cavalry arm of the US Army found that their wheeled armored scout cars had trouble in rainy weather due to their weight and high ground pressure.

In 1938, the White Motor Company took the Timken rear bogie assembly from a T9 half-track truck and added it to an M3 Scout Car, creating the T7 Half-Track Car. [2] This vehicle was woefully underpowered. When a further requirement came down from US Army artillery units in 1939 for a prime mover to be used as an artillery tractor, a vehicle with an uprated engine was developed, which was designated the Half Track Scout Car T14.

By 1940, the vehicle had been standardized as the M2 Half-Track car. The M2 design was recognised as having the potential for general mechanized infantry use, which spawned the larger bodied M3 Half Track. Both the M2 and M3 were ordered into production in late 1940, with M2 contracts let to the Autocar Company, White and Diamond-T. The first vehicles were received by the army in 1941.

The M2 was supplied to artillery units as the prime mover and ammunition carrier for the 105mm howitzer, and to armored infantry units for carrying machine gun squads. It was also given to armored reconnaissance units [3] as an interim solution until more specialized vehicles could be fielded.

Between 1942 and 1943, both the M2 and M3 would receive a number of modifications to the drive train, engine, and stowage, among other things.

Total production of M2 and derivatives by White was about 13,500 units. To meet the needs of Lend-Lease to the Allies, the International Harvester Company produced 3,500 units of the M9. The M9 was the same as the IH-produced M5 but with different internal stowage and apart from using IH mechanical components the M9 was longer than the M2.

The first M2s were fielded in 1941, and would be used in the Philippines, North Africa, and Europe by the U.S. Army, and around the Pacific by the Marines. About 800 M2 and M9 halftracks were sent to the Soviet Union. Many remaining vehicles initially destined for lend-lease were transferred to other U.S. allies, primarily in South America. These vehicles often received a number of upgrades designed at extending service life. Nicaragua's National Guard received 10 M2s in 1942, which saw heavy action during the 1978-79 Nicaraguan Revolution. The Argentine Army retired its last upgraded M9 in 2006 and donated them to Bolivia.

In 1947, the Finnish heavy vehicle producer Vanajan Autotehdas bought 425 M2 Half track vehicles from the Western Allied surplus stocks located in France and Germany. The vehicles were delivered without armour. [4] 359 units were converted into field and forest clearing vehicles, some were scrapped for parts and 60 units were equipped with conventional rear axles and converted into 4×4 or 4×2 trucks. They were badged as Vanaja VaWh. The last units were sold in 1952. [5]


Analitzant la situació a Europa, els dissenyadors van considerar obsolet el tanc lleuger M-2 i van construir un prototip amb el blindatge millorat, la suspensió modificada i un nou sistema de recuperació del canó. Aquest nou tanc va ser denominat "Tanc Lleuger M-3". La producció va començar al març de 1941 i va durar fins a l'octubre de 1943. Com el seu antecessor, el M-2A4, el M-3 posseïa un canó de 35 mm i 5 metralladores: una coaxial al canó, una en la torreta, una en el davant i dos als costats.

L'Exèrcit Britànic va ser el primer a utilitzar el M-3 Stuart en combat. Al novembre de 1941, 170 Stuarts van participar en l'Operació Crusader. Els resultats van ser, en general, decebedors. A pesar que les altes pèrdues sofertes per les unitats Stuart durant l'operació estaven més relacionades amb les tàctiques utilitzades i l'entrenament de les Afrika Kops que amb la superioritat dels vehicles alemanys, l'operació va demostrar que el M3 era inferior als tancs enemics. Entre les queixes sorgides estava el canó de 37 mm, poc eficaç per a l'època, i la pobra disposició interna. La tripulació de dos soldats i un tercer per a la torreta era una debilitat important, i algunes unitats britàniques van intentar lluitar amb tripulacions de tres operaris i una cambra encarregada de la torreta. En el costat positiu, a les tripulacions els va agradar la rapidesa i la fiabilitat mecànica, que van donar lloc al seu altre sobrenom, Honey. L'alta velocitat i fiabilitat van distingir al Stuart d'altres carros de combat britàniques de l'època. A partir de l'estiu de 1942, quan es van rebre bastants tancs dels Estats Units, l'Exèrcit Britànic va mantenir amb freqüència als Stuart fos del principal front de batalla, usant-los principalment en tasques de reconeixement. La torreta es va eliminar d'alguns tancs per a alleugerar pes i millorar així la velocitat i l'autonomia. Aquests vehicles es van conèixer com a Stuart Recce. Uns altres es van convertir en transports blindats per al personal i vehicles de comandància. M3, M3A3 i M5 van seguir usant-se pel servei britànic fins al final de la guerra, si bé les unitats blindades britàniques eren molt menors en proporció respecte a les unitats nord-americanes.

La Unió Soviètica, l'altra principal receptora del M3, va estar fins i tot més descontenta amb el tanc, considerant-ho poc armat, poc blindat, propens a ser abatut i massa sensible a la qualitat del combustible. El motor radial utilitzat en el M3 requeria combustible d'alt octanatge. No obstant això, el M3 era superior als tancs lleugers soviètics anteriors a la guerra, com el T-60. El 1943, l'Exèrcit Roig va provar el M5 i va decidir que el disseny actualitzat no era molt millor que el M3. Menys necessitats que el 1941, els soviètics van rebutjar l'oferta nord-americana de subministrar el nou model. Els M3 van romandre en servei amb l'Exèrcit Roig fins al 1944.

En l'Exèrcit dels Estats Units, el M3 va aparèixer en combat per primera vegada a les Filipines. Un reduït nombre va lluitar en la Campanya de la península de Batan. Quan l'Exèrcit dels Estats Units es va unir a la Campanya del Nord d'Àfrica a la fi de 1942, les unitats Stuart formaven una important part de la seva força blindada. Després de la desastrosa Batalla del pas de Kasserine, on els M3 i M5 es van enfrontar als Panzer IV i Tiger alemanys, els Estats Units van seguir el pla britànic i van desfer la majoria de batallons de tancs lleugers, dedicant els Stuart a labors de reconeixement i exploració.

En el front europeu, els tancs lleugers van rebre un paper secundari, ja que no podien sobreviure davant la majoria de vehicles blindats enemics. L'únic lloc en què el Stuart seguia sent útil era el front del Pacífic, ja que rarament es trobaven tancs japonesos. I quan això succeïa, resultaven ser molt febles tant en blindatge com en armament. La infanteria japonesa no disposava d'armament antitanc i tendia a atacar els mateixos amb tàctiques d'assalt. En aquesta situació, el Stuart tan només era una mica més vulnerable que els tancs majors.

No obstant això, el nombre de M3 i M5 produïts va ser tan gran (més de 25.000 unitats incloent el M8 HMC) que va romandre en servei fins al final de la guerra. A més dels Estats Units, Gran Bretanya i la Unió Soviètica, també va ser utilitzat per França, la Xina i Iugoslàvia (M3A3 i algun M3A1).

Després de la guerra, alguns països van equipar els seus exèrcits amb els barats i fiables Stuarts. El M5 va jugar un important paper en la Primera Guerra Kashmir entre l'Índia i Pakistan el 1947. El vehicle es va mantenir en servei en diversos països sud-americans fins al 1996.

Durant els anys 1960 i 1970, l'Exèrcit Portuguès també va usar alguns Stuart en la guerra d'Angola, on la seva capacitat totterreny (comparada amb altres vehicles de rodes) i potència de foc van ser bastant apreciades.

  • M-3 (Disseny Britànic "Stuart I"). 5,811 produïts
    • Alguns M-3 els va ser canviat el motor per un Guiberson dièsel i reanomenats "Stuart II" per Anglaterra.
    • Últims M-3 els van ser canviades les torretes".
    • Nous anells en la torreta, li van retirar la cúpula, els van ser retirades les metralladores.
    • M-3A1 amb motor diesel Guiberson dièsel denominats a Anglaterra com Stuart IV".
    • Es va canviar l'antiga torreta per una amb més abast i rang.
    • motors Cadillac bessons. Es va redissenyar la carrosseria similar a la del M-3A3, però ara els motors estan superposats. La torreta és la mateixa del M-3A1.
    • M5 amb torreta del M-3A3 aquesta és la versió més popular en els Estats Units en 1943.
    • Basat en el M-5. El canó va ser reemplaçat per un 75 mm M2/M3 howitzer.
    • Vehicle d'artilleria de 105 mm basat en el M-5A1. Cancel·lat en 1945.
    • Variant del T56 Amb motor continental del M-3 Lee Construïts al febrer de 1943.
    • M5-A1 li va ser instal·lat un morter de 81 mm. També portava una .50. El projecte va ser abandonat per inadequat per a la tripulació.
    • Flame llançaflames instal·lat en el canó principal. 20 tancs van ser convertits per als marines en 1943.
    • llançaflames instal·lat en el pedestal de la .30.
    • M5 amb removedor. No va entrar en producció
    • T39 amb 20 coets 7.2". No va entrar en producció.
    • llançaflames instal·lat en el canó principal.
    • Prototip.
    • Kangaroo APC Stuart Kangaroo.
        Construït pel Regne Unit, se li van agregar seients extres
      • Vehicle de reconeixement basat en la barcassa del Stuart
      • Kangaroo amb sistema de ràdio extra

      En 1970 La companyia Bernardini va construir vehicles amb llicència per a l'exèrcit de Brasil, basats en el Stuart.


      Self-Propelled Mortar Carriers II

      SdKfz 251/2 Mortar Carrier

      The SdKfz 251 was developed into a range of different purposes, from ambulance duties to anti-tank roles. By late 1944, around 16,000 vehicles had been built to serve in no fewer than twenty-three different roles. Depending on the role, each version had a different length of service life, but if they were capable of continuing to operate they remained in use. In fact, examples were still in operation right until the last days of the war at a time when fuel was extremely scarce. One of the earliest variants to be produced was the Sdkfz 251/2, which was the mortar-carrying version, weighing 8.64 tons and equipped to carry the 8cm GrW34 mortar. Being open-topped, the weapon could be fired from within the vehicle, firing forward, and a separate baseplate allowed it to be dismounted for use from prepared positions. The vehicle in this role was operated by a crew of eight, available in the heavy platoon and known as Great 892 (Equipment 892). It carried sixty-six rounds of ammunition ready to use and was supported in turn by the SdKfz 251/4 version, which could carry resupplies of ammunition or even tow the heavy GrW42 12cm mortar.

      The other half-track vehicle developed into a mortar carrier was the SdKfz 250, which was built by the company of Bussing-NAG, which developed the armoured body, and several other manufacturers including Weg-mann and Deutsche Werke. Although the design had been thoroughly tested in the field throughout 1939, there were insufficient numbers ready to enter full operational service on the outbreak of war. In fact, the SdKfz 250, originally referred to as Leichte Gepanzerte Kraftwagen, did not enter service with the German Army properly until 1940, by which time it was known as the Leichte Schutzenpanzerwagen (light infantry armoured vehicle). Although it was not in service for the Polish campaign, there were sufficient numbers in service to be used during the attack against Holland, Belgium and France, where they were used in roles such as reconnaissance, command and communications. After this initial battle-proving deployment, the SdKfz 250 went on to see service on all fronts during the war, including North Africa, Italy and Russia.

      The basic model was an armoured personnel carrier designated as the SdKfz 250/1, operated by a crew of two (driver and commander). In this role it was capable of carrying four fully-equipped troops with support weapons, such as crew for mortars or machine guns. This version was armed with two machine guns, such as the MG42, for which some 2,000 rounds of ammunition were carried. The basic version SdKfz 250 was almost 15ft in length, 6.4ft in width, but the height varied according to the role in which it was serving and the armament carried. The standard version had a combat weight of 5.5 tons, but, again, this varied according to armament and other equipment, such as the mortar carrier which weighed 5.61 tons. The armour thickness was from 8mm minimum to 15mm maximum.

      The vehicle in all its variants was powered by a Maybach HL42 TR KM six-cylinder water-cooled inline petrol engine, which developed 100hp at 2,800rpm and gave a top speed of just over 40mph on roads. The vehicle had an operational range of over 180 miles on roads and it could negotiate vertical obstacles up to 15in, ford water obstacles shallower than 27in and scale gradients of 40 degrees. The front wheels were not ‘driven’, being used for steering purposes only. The automotive power was to the front drive sprockets on the tracks and the suspension was of the FAMO type, and whilst the vehicle was itself efficient it was somewhat complicated to maintain. This was a telling point in the sub-zero conditions on the Russian Front after 1941. In total, twelve variants were developed from the basic version and included an antitank gun version, specialist engineer versions, signals vehicles, ammunition carrier with ordnance troops and was even used by the Luftwaffe. Most, but not all, versions of the SdKfz 250 were open-topped, which was perfect to allow fire support weapons such as the GrW34 8cm mortar to be mounted and create a variant known as the SdKfz 201/7 or Great 897 (Equipment 897). These were operated by a crew of five and available to the fourth platoon of the Leichter Panzer Aufklarungs, or light armoured reconnaissance vehicles. A total of forty-two rounds of ammunition were carried on the vehicle ready to use and the mortar could be dismounted to be used to provide fire support in prepared positions. It was supported by a version termed munitionsfahrzeug (ammunition vehicle), which was operated by four men and carried sixty-six rounds of ammunition to resupply the mortar carrier. It was armed with two machine guns for self-defence with 2,000 rounds of ammunition.

      In addition to using its own standard mortar-carrying vehicles, the German Army also converted a number of captured French armoured vehicles to the role of self-propelled mortar carriers. These they armed with either German service 8cm sGrW34 mortars or captured French-built Brandt weapons. French tanks such as the AMR35 had their turrets removed and the chassis converted to other roles such as self-propelled guns and mortar carriers. In May 1940, the French Army had about 200 AMR35 tanks in service, mostly armed with a 37mm gun in a fully traversing turret, but there were also other variants. After the French surrender, all surviving examples and variants captured by the Germans were converted into other uses, which included carrier vehicles for the standard German Army 8cm sGrW34 mortar. In this role they were designated as 8cm schwere Granatewerfer 34 auf Panzerspahwagen AMR35(f), which identified it as a heavy armoured self-propelled mortar carrier.

      The conversion was achieved by first removing the upper superstructure including the engine covering, and this was replaced by an open-topped fighting compartment into which was mounted an 8cm GrW34 mortar fitted on a race-ring mounting to allow it to be fired in any direction without having to manoeuvre the vehicle. The rear of the compartment was open but could be closed off with a door to protect the crew. The conversion gave it a larger profile than the original design but the engine and all other automotive parts and road wheel layout remained unchanged. This gave the vehicle a road speed of 31mph and an operational range of 120 miles. It was operated by a crew of four, which included the driver, and a secondary armament of a single 7.92mm calibre MG34 machine gun was fitted for self-defence. A supply of ready-to-use ammunition was carried on the vehicle and resupply vehicles would have brought forward replenishment stocks. Records show that around 200 such vehicles were converted to this role and used only in France, where they could be deployed in response to threats. The conversion would have been completed at workshops in France, but it is not clear if any of these vehicles participated in the fighting after the Allied landings in Normandy from 6 June 1944 onwards.

      It would seem likely these would almost certainly have been deployed at some point against the Allies because it would make no sense to develop such weapon systems and not use them. It may be that some of these self-propelled mortar vehicles were used in the fighting during the Normandy campaign, but due to the low production numbers they have been overlooked in favour of the more widely-used vehicles such as the true self-propelled guns and tanks. The person responsible for developing these systems and other selfpropelled weapons was Major Alfred Becker, who was a professional soldier, having served in the First World War. He was an engineer who excelled in developing hybrid systems such as these, using captured stocks of enemy equipment. He commanded the Sturmgeschutz-Abt 200, equipped with selfpropelled guns of his design, as part of the 21st Panzer Division, seeing much action in Normandy. He served with distinction and developed other systems until his capture in December 1944.

      One of the most unusual conversions to serve as a mortar carrier was based on the French SOMUA MCL half-track personnel carrier, which became known as the Mittlerer Schutsenpanzerwagen S307(f), work on which began in 1943. The vehicle was modified to its new role by mounting two rows of eight barrels of 81mm captured French Army mortars stacked on a mounting to the rear of the vehicle. The tubes were pre-loaded and could be fired simultaneously to produce an instant bombardment. Reloading the tubes would have taken time and rate of fire would have been a lot slower than using a conventional mortar firing from a prepared position. In total some sixteen of these vehicles were available in 1944, but their fate is not known. A heavier version was produced, also based on the SOMUA MCL, which mounted twenty barrels of 81mm Brandt mortars in a similar array, and this was known as the Schwerer Reihenwerfer auf SPW SOMUA S303(f). These vehicles served in France, but, again, it is not known conclusively if they were deployed in action against the Allies after June 1944.

      Captured armoured vehicles were dispatched to various theatres of operations, including Finland and Norway. Others such as the French Char B-1 bis, known in service with the German Army as the Panzerkampfwagen B-2 740(f), were sent to the Channel Islands and the Eastern Front, which represented the opposite extreme edges of the territory under German occupation. In the Channel Islands, some French tanks had their turrets removed to be incorporated into defence plans. Other vehicles which could have been converted to use as mortar carriers included the UE630, which the French Army used as a transport vehicle for supplies, and the Unic-Kègresse half-track, yet despite their suitability neither these nor apparently any other French vehicles were armed to serve as self-propelled mortars carriers.

      The French Army had never deemed it necessary to develop a self-propelled mortar system using any of the weapons in service after all they had good artillery and armoured units. The Italian Army did not develop a selfpropelled mortar system and relied on artillery and the mortars used by the infantry units. After 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies, the German Army seized many armoured vehicles and took these into service. Unlike the French vehicles which they converted to other uses, the Italian vehicles were used in their primary roles. The Soviet Red Army did not develop a selfpropelled mortar system either and relied on self-propelled guns and vehicles which towed the heavy calibre mortars on wheeled carriages. The Japanese Army did experiment with self-propelled mortars for a while and developed the Type 4 Ha To. This used a Type 4 Chi-To medium tank which was converted to allow a 300mm calibre Type 3 heavy mortar to be mounted to fire forward. It could fire a 374lbs HE bomb out to ranges of 3,300 yards, but the design was unstable and the vehicle proved liable to toppling over due to its height. In the end only three prototypes of the Ha To were produced and these never saw combat service.

      Type 4 Ha To

      British and Commonwealth forces did not show much interest in developing a self-propelled mortar version based on an armoured vehicle design. Some feasibility experiments were conducted to examine the viability of producing such a variant, but ultimately the research did not lead to the introduction of a vehicle-mounted mortar in the same way as used by the American and German armies. One experiment which did lead to the production of a self-propelled version of the British 3in mortar was based on the Universal Bren Gun Carrier. This was developed by the Australian Army, which had already modified some Universal Carriers to mount 2-pdr anti-tank guns, and using this as a starting point they fitted a 3in mortar to the vehicle. The weapon could be fired directly from the vehicle or dismounted and used from a prepared defensive position. The mortar had a full 360-degree traverse capability if required, which meant the vehicle did not have to manoeuvre to alter the range of traverse beyond the angles which could be achieved in the bipod mounting. In terms of range, this configuration was comparable to the standard infantry mortar and fired the same bombs. In the end it was never taken into service with the Australian Army, but around 400 examples are understood to have been produced and these were sent as part of the military aid to support the Nationalist Chinese Forces of Chiang Kai Shek in the fighting against the Japanese.

      It seems strange that the British Army should not pursue the development of a self-propelled mortar vehicle, especially when it developed a range of specialist vehicles for other roles to clear minefields and close support tanks armed with large calibre guns. These were developed in the build-up for the invasion of Europe to support the landings. They were known as ‘Hobart’s Funnies’, after Major General Percy Hobart who thought up some of the designs. Hobart was a military engineer who had served in the First World War, seeing action in France. During the 1920s, he developed an interest in tank designs and armoured warfare tactics. He retired in 1940 under duress, following a conflict of opinions concerning his designs for armoured vehicles and their role. Hobart initially joined his local Home Guard unit, but in 1941 he was re-instated and given the job of training the 11th Armoured Division. Further positions followed and in 1942 he was given the role of training the newly-created 79th Armoured Division. After the disastrous failure of Operation Jubilee, the Allied attack against Dieppe on 19 August 1942, where none of the tanks were able to get off the beach, he set about developing a series of specialist armoured vehicles designed to support future amphibious landings. What Hobart developed included bridge-laying vehicles, flails to breech minefields and flame throwers. These were to prove vital during the D-Day landings and campaigns across Europe. For some reason self-propelled mortars were not developed. One can only conclude that with SPGs such as the Sexton, with its 25-pdr field gun, and the M7 ‘Priest’, with its 105mm gun, Hobart did not feel it necessary to build a design around the British 3in mortar.