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3000 BCE - 2550 BCE
Troy I - First stone-walled village settlement
2550 BCE - 2300 BCE
Troy II - origin of gold 'treasure' found by Schliemann
2300 BCE - 1750 BCE
Troy III - Troy V
1750 BCE - 1300 BCE
Troy VI - probable Troy of Homer's Iliad. City at its zenith.
Trojan War, according to Duris of Samos.
1300 BCE - 950 BCE
Troy VIIa - VIIb Notable decline in architectural and artisitic standards
c. 1250 BCE
Trojan War, according to Herodotus.
Trojan War, according to Eratosthenes.
c. 950 BCE - 550 CE
Troy VIII Greek Ilion - Troy IX Roman Ilium
c. 800 BCE - c. 700 BCE
Homer of Greece writes his Iliad and Odyssey.
c. 301 BCE - c. 320 BCE
Doric temple to Athena and fortifications of Lysimachus built at Troy.
Is Troy In the Bible?
Troy isn’t in the Bible but so what? It’s fun and helpful to discover what was happening in the Bible during the days of Troy. I decided to check out just how useful the Amazing Bible Timeline with World History is. I actually couldn’t remember if Troy was on there or not.These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline
Quickly See 6000 Years of Bible and World History Together
Unique Circular Format – see more in less space.
Learn facts that you can’t learn just from reading the Bible
Attractive design ideal for your home, office, church …
I checked the index printed right on the poster and sure enough, there was Troy – between 1200 and 1100 BC in the Greek line. I went to that section and found “Trojan Wars 1184 BC” It was an easy to check the Biblical events for those same years to find Samuel was the prophet during the time of the Judges. For the following I also used the index to find Homer, Alexander the Great and more.
Here’s more about Troy and the Bible:
|2000 BC to 1180 BC:||Troy is a culture center|
|Bible: Abraham to Saul – ancient beginnings of Israel|
|1184 BC to 1100 BC:||Trojan War. Troy is abandoned|
|Bible: Time of Samuel the prophet|
|Homer writes the Iliad and Odyssey: the story of Trojan Wars|
|Bible: Time of Solomon and the division of the kingdoms of Israel|
|700 – 600 BC:||Greeks begin to move into Troy. Named Ilium|
|Bible: This is the century that begins with King Hezekiah and |
ends with Josiah and finally the captivity under Nebuchadnezzar.
|300 BC||Alexander the Great rules Troy/Ilium.|
|Bible: These are the silent years of the Bible|
|85 BC||Rome conquers Troy/Ilium. Roman general Sulla partially restores it.|
|Bible – still silent. Jerusalem is also under Roman rule. The stage is set for the birth of the Messiah.|
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- Discover interesting facts - Biblical events with scripture references plotted alongside world history showcase fun chronological relationships
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Gift yourself, your family and Bible studying friends this amazing study companion for an exciting journey of discovery.
History Information & Timeline
Rensselaer County’s history is a mirror image of American history. Within our borders, the Battle of Bennington was fought Anti-Rent Wars began and the Industrial Revolution was born.
Prior to the arrival of the Dutch in the early 1600’s Rensselaer County had been occupied for thousands of years by Indians. Although there are no remains of their villages, or battlegrounds, many “Indian Heads” have been found along the streams running through the high grounds in the County. The only site left from these times is the Knickerbacker Mansion in Schaghticoke. In 1676, Governor Andros and the Chiefs of the Mohicans and Schaghticoke Tribes met here to sign treaties and plant trees marking the end of King Philips War. While the trees are no longer living, the Mansion still stands.
In 1629, Kilean Van Rensselaer established the feudal manor of Rensselaerwyck. The portion in Rensselaer County was 24 miles long and ran along the Hudson River to include what is now known as Schodack, Nassau, North and East Greenbush, Sand Lake, Grafton, Brunswick, Petersburg, Berlin, Stephentown, Pittstown, Troy and Rensselaer. Fort Crailo, located in the City of Rensselaer, was the early Manor house, and is the site where “Yankee Doodle” was composed.
Rensselaer County was situated in the mainstream of events during the 1777 Revolutionary War campaign. The famous Battle of Bennington actually took place in Walloomsac, in the Town of Hoosick. During this battle, almost the entire German force, sent there on order of British General Burgoyne, was captured or killed, thus diminishing British strength and paving the way for the British surrender at Saratoga.
Following the War for Independence, New Englanders began to migrate and settle in Rensselaer County, which was founded in 1791 and named after its first patron, Kilean Van Rensselaer. Two years later, Troy was designated as the county seat.
Born in 1766, “Uncle Sam” Wilson was the seventh son of a family of thirteen. He and his brother walked from their home in Mason, New Hampshire to Troy in 1789. Previous to coming to Troy, Mr. Wilson served in the Army as a service boy whose duties were to tend livestock, repair fences, etc.
In Troy he prospered as a meat packer and slaughtered much of the beef and pork consumed here. Among the contractors supplying the Army of the North with provisions during the War of 1812, was Elbert Anderson, who on October 1st of that year advertised in the Troy and Albany newspapers for proposals for “Two thousand barrels of prime pork and three hundred barrels of prime beef,” to be delivered to him at Waterford, Troy, Albany and New York City in early 1813.
Ebenezer and Samuel Wilson, who were then extensively engaged in slaughtering cattle in the village, contracted to furnish him a quantity of beef “packed in full-bound barrels of white oak.”
From time to time they delivered it to the camp at Greenbush, where the soldiers from Troy designated it as “Uncle Sam’s” implying that it was furnished by Samuel Wilson, who they and other people of the village were accustomed to call “Uncle Sam.” The other recruits, thinking that the term was applied to the letters U.S. stamped upon the barrels by government inspectors of beef, began using the appellation “Uncle Sam” figuratively for the United States.
While in Troy, Mr. Wilson owned the land which is now Prospect Park. On this land, his animals grazed and there he obtained the clay which he used in making brick. Not only did Mr. Wilson raise, slaughter, pack beef and manufacture brick, but he also ran an orchard, nursery, distillery, general store and operated sloops on the Orange (now Hudson) River.
As for his physical appearance, he was large, well-proportioned and clean shaven. The chin whiskers were added by a contemporary artist because of their era of popularity.
In 1962, the U.S. Congress officially recognized Troy as the home of Uncle Sam. In May of 1988, the governor signed legislation marking Wilson’s birthday, September 13th as Uncle Sam Day.
A bronze tablet in Oakwood Cemetery marks the final resting place of “Uncle Sam.” Over this peaceful scene fly the stars and stripes maintained by the “Uncle Sam” Council, Boy Scouts of America, Troy, N.Y.
During the years from 1839 to 1850, tenant farmers of the patroon began to contest the right of patrons to maintain a feudal-like manor and began to revolt To avoid recognition and retaliation, the members of this grassroots organization wore calico disguises resembling Indians. When the Sheriff came on behalf of the Van Rensselaer heirs, the tenants refused to let him or his deputies onto their farms. The protest soon spread to a ten county area. In 1850, new laws favoring the tenants over the patrons were enacted, putting an end to the bloodshed. The house of the leader of the Anti-Rent Wars, Dr. Smith Boughton still stands in Alps in the Town of Nassau.
Because of the ideal geographic location of Rensselaer County and the abundant water supply available, the area became a fast leader in the industrial development of the Northeast. During the mid-1900’s, the City of Troy became known for its clothing products – collars, cuffs and shirts. The nickname, “The Collar City” still is heard today. Troy also became famous for its foundry products, such as stoves, sheet iron and steel, and the precision instruments made by W. & L.E. Gurley (now known as Teledyne-Gurley).
Rensselaer County played a crucial role in the Civil War, providing the Union Army with machine made horseshoes made at the Burden Iron Works, which was powered by the largest waterwheel in the world. At this plant, 360 horseshoes could be made per minute, as opposed to one manmade shoe produced each minute.
Iron plates for the Monitor, the iron clad vessel that was instrumental in the eventual victory of the Union Army over the Confederates, were rolled at the Albany Rolling and Slitting Mill.
In 1865, the first steel plant in the United States was built at the mouth of the Wynantskill in Troy. In addition, Walter Singer, inventor of the famous sewing machine was born in Johnsonville, and Walter Wood from Hoosick Falls was instrumental in developing the manufacturing of harvesting equipment.
Many of these old industries are gone, but they have been replaced by others who have come to rely on the highly skilled workforce available in Rensselaer County. Today, Rensselaer County is becoming a fast leader in high technology, playing home to the Rensselaer Technology Park in the Town of North Greenbush.
Troy (along with Pierce, Shirley and Annie), is asked by Abed to join Jeff and Britta in a Spanish study group. When it's discovered that Jeff lied about being a Spanish tutor, the rest of the study group kicks him out. When Troy and the others later find Jeff depressed on the steps of the library, they all take pity on him and invite him back. Troy and Abed soon become fast friends and a full-blown bromance develops. He also becomes more comfortable with college life and ditches his varsity jacket along with his jock mentality. He also spent the year oblivious to Annie's obvious school girl crush on him until he was made aware of it by Jeff and Britta. When he helps Britta out at her dance recital it lays the seeds for future developments between them. An encounter with Jerry the janitor makes Troy aware of the exceptional repair man skills he possesses. At the end of the semester, his father kicks him out of the house to make room for his much younger girlfriend. Troy tries to move in with Abed in his dorm room but is told by his friend that living together at this point would put too much of a strain on their friendship. He instead accepts a previous offer he got from Pierce and moves into his mansion with him.
"Pilot": Troy and the rest of the study group meet for the first time.
"Spanish 101": Troy's friendship with Abed starts, and they both appear in the show's first end tag performing the "Spanish Rap".
"Introduction to Film": Pierce helps Troy with his "baby sneeze" and to stop wearing his high school letterman jacket.
"Social Psychology": Troy wastes all day in a psych experiment Annie asked him to join.
"Advanced Criminal Law": Troy messes with Abed and then gets messed back. He promises Abed to never mess with him again.
"Football, Feminism and You": Jeff convinces Troy to join the Greendale football team.
"Introduction to Statistics": Troy dresses as Eddie Murphy for Annie's Halloween party and bonds with Abed.
"Home Economics": Troy asks for Annie's help with a date not knowing she is in love with him.
"Debate 109": Troy show the Study Group Abed's films about them, "The Community College Chronicles".
"Environmental Science": Troy helps Abed recapture the mouse for their science experiment by singing "Somewhere Out There".
"The Politics of Human Sexuality": Troy competes with Abed at several sports and loses but comes to terms with this at the STD Fair.
"Comparative Religion": Troy helps Jeff practice boxing in preparation for his fight with school bully Mike Chilada.
"Interpretive Dance": Britta finds out that Troy is taking dance classes at school.
"Romantic Expressionism": Manipulated by Jeff and Britta, Troy makes a play for Annie even though she is seeing Vaughn Miller.
"Communication Studies": Troy and Pierce are forced to wear ladies pant suits by Chang and dance with him at the Valentine's dance.
"Physical Education": Troy loves Abed's Don Draper impersonation he works on to pick up Jenny Adams.
"Basic Genealogy": Troy's grandmother Nana Barnes shows up for the school "Family Day" event.
"Beginner Pottery": Troy takes a sailing class in the parking lot with Pierce, Shirley, Britta and Star-Burns.
"Contemporary American Poultry": Troy acts as the "bagman" in Abed's chicken finger mafia and gets a pet monkey which he names "Annie's Boobs".
"The Art of Discourse": Troy helps Abed pull a number of classic college pranks.
"English as a Second Language": Troy discovers he has plumbing skills and Jerry tries to convince him to abandon school and become a plumber.
"Pascal's Triangle Revisited": Troy decides to move in with Pierce.
Troy is still adjusting to living with Pierce when he returns to school. Now in his sophomore year, he and the study group take Anthropology 101 together. Pierce learns that Troy had been quoting his offensive comments on a Twitter account called "Old White Man Says," but eventually forgives him when he finds out how popular the account had become. Troy makes a gruesome discovery at the mansion when he finds Pierce's mom dead. On Halloween, he rescues everyone from a mysterious contagion brought on by taco meat although everyone's memory of the event is erased by government agents. Troy later receives a voice mail that hints Chang hooked up with Shirley that same night. Troy discovers on his birthday that he is actually turning 21 years old and the study group takes him to a bar to celebrate. He attends an acting class with Britta and lies about a childhood trauma, at first to win the respect of his classmates but later to to take advantage of Britta's attraction to "damaged" men. He and Abed build a blanket fort together, have a friendly competition over the affections of the school librarian and rally the Greendale students when the school is invaded by City College.
"Anthropology 101": Troy is upset with Jeff for "hogging the doughnuts" Pierce discovers Troy has been quoting him on a Twitter account called "Old White Man Says".
"Accounting for Lawyers": Troy helps reveal that Alan Connor ratted out Jeff to the state bar and later participates in the Pop and Locktoberfest.
"Basic Rocket Science": Troy assumes control of the "Eleven Herbs & Space Experience" when the Winnebago, along with him and the rest of the study group, are towed off school property before it's debut at a press conference announcing it as part of Greendale's new space program.
"Messianic Myths and Ancient Peoples": Troy stars in Abed's apology to Shirley movie about Jesus.
"Epidemiology": At a school sponsored Halloween party, Troy reverts back into his original jock persona as a horrifying epidemic grips the rest of the attendees.
"Aerodynamics of Gender": Jeff and Troy discover a secret place which contains a trampoline and is tended to by the school groundskeeper Joshua.
"Cooperative Calligraphy": Troy placates everyone when they can't find Annie's pen by telling a story where a ghost took the pen.
"Conspiracy Theories and Interior Design": Troy and Abed build a blanket fort at the school.
"Mixology Certification": Troy celebrates his twenty first birthday at a bar with the rest of the study group.
"Abed's Uncontrollable Christmas": Troy becomes Troy Soldier is Abed's Christmas fantasy world and prevents the Christmas Wizard from stopping Abed from going to the North Pole. he later hits the Christmas Wizard with nun chucks.
"Asian Population Studies": Troy tells Shirley about a voice mail message he received from Chang that stated that she and Chang hooked up on Halloween.
"Celebrity Pharmacology 212": Troy is a bee in Annie's anti-drug play and gets hit in the face with a baseball thrown by the middle school audience.
"Advanced Dungeons & Dragons": Troy is Bing Bong the Archer in the D&D game.
"Early 21st Century Romanticism": Troy has a friendly competition with Abed for the affections of librarian Mariah. When Troy wins he finds her criticism of Abed unbearable and leaves her for Abed.
"Intro to Political Science": Troy and Abed broadcast the student president election on GCTV.
"Custody Law and Eastern European Diplomacy": Troy and Abed try to prevent Britta from dating their new friend Lukka.
"Critical Film Studies": Dressed as "Pumpkin" for a "Pulp Fiction" theme birthday party for Abed, Troy becomes jealous of Jeff's gift for Abed and ends up ruining it.
"Competitive Wine Tasting": Troy takes an acting class with Britta and lies about a past traumatic experience which gets him top marks in class and also the attention of Britta who becomes attracted to him.
"Paradigms of Human Memory": Troy suffers a nose bleed when the study group starts arguing about how they always argue.
"Applied Anthropology and Culinary Arts": Troy and Abed sell their signature handshake to Pierce.
"A Fistful of Paintballs": It's revealed in a flashback that Troy voted Pierce out of the study group.
"For A Few Paintballs More": Troy and Jeff fight over the leadership of the remaining Greendale students while trying to take back the school from Dean Spreck and his City College Storm Troopers.
In Troy's third year at school, he and Abed finally move in together. They also later welcome Annie as the roommate at their apartment. His talent as a repairman gets him the attention of the Air Conditioning Repair school annex. Throughout the semester, the head of the A/C department Vice-Dean Robert Laybourne tries to convince Troy to join them enticing him with the perks of being in an elite A/C secret society. A schism forms between him and Abed while at the same time Troy finds himself getting closer to Britta who starts to return his unrequited affections. While he is constructing a Pillow Fort with Abed they have a falling out resulting in a campus wide civil war. Although the best friends make up, Troy and the study group are later expelled by the school board thanks to Ben Chang having framed them for causing a riot at school. Troy and the group eventually manage to expose Chang as the true culprit and redeem themselves by saving the school from his rule. However, he is forced to leave his friends and join the AC school due to their assistance during the crisis. Over the summer, a shocking death at the AC school has Troy convinced it was a murder. After confronting the culprit he wins his freedom from the school and is able to reunite with his friends.
"Biology 101": Troy and the study group return to Greendale for their third year at school.
"Geography of Global Conflict": Troy represents the country Georgia in the Model UN but speaks like he is from Georgia the state.
"Remedial Chaos Theory": Troy and Abed throw a housewarming party for their new apartment.
"Competitive Ecology": When made lab partners, Troy and Abed realize they spend too much time together.
"Horror Fiction in Seven Spooky Steps": Troy tells a horror story about him and Abed as jet fighter pilots who end up being sewn together.
"Advanced Gay": Troy is given an offer by Vice Dean Laybourne to enroll in the Air conditioning repair school and join the secret society behind it.
"Studies in Modern Movement": Troy and Abed welcome their new roommate Annie into the apartment.
"Documentary Filmmaking: Redux": Troy and the study group participate in a commercial for Greendale being directed by Dean Pelton and the attraction between him and Britta is noticed by Abed.
"Foosball and Nocturnal Vigilantism": Troy and Annie try to stop Abed from seeking Batman style vengeance on their landlord for the supposed theft of a Dark Knight DVD.
"Regional Holiday Music": Abed convinces Troy to join him in performing at the Glee Club's Christmas Pageant by rapping the song "Christmas Infiltration".
"Urban Matrimony and the Sandwich Arts": Troy and Abed decide to "normalize" themselves inside the Dreamatorium in order to be ready for Shirley's upcoming nuptials.
"Contemporary Impressionists": Troy prevents Abed from having his legs broken (since Abed owes money to a celebrity for hire service) by having the study group act as various celebrities at a Bar Mitzvah. Troy dresses as early Michael Jackson.
"Digital Exploration of Interior Design": Troy stops helping Abed build his pillow fort and instead decides to pursue the World record for the largest blanket fort.
"Pillows and Blankets": The campus war between Troy's blanket fort and Abed's Pillow fort is told in a documentary.
"Origins of Vampire Mythology": Troy tries to stop Abed from over reacting to his prized Batman DVD being destroyed.
"Virtual Systems Analysis": Troy and Britta are set up on a lunch date by Annie.
"Basic Lupine Urology": Troy and Abed investigate the death of their Biology project yam.
"Course Listing Unavailable": Troy reassures the study group that they will be all right even though they have been expelled from school because they still have each other.
"Curriculum Unavailable": Abed is order to attend a psychiatric session with Dr. Heidi that the Study Group also attends which results in a number of eccentric flashbacks.
"Digital Estate Planning": Abed and the Study Group try to help Pierce win his inheritance by playing a video game. Troy character loses his clothing in a poker game.
"First Chang Dynasty": Troy finally gives into the A/C repair school and joins them in order to save the lives of the study group.
"Introduction to Finality": Troy learns of his AC destiny and is then compelled to solve the mystery behind Robert Laybourne's untimely death by challenging Murray to a showdown in The Sun Chamber.
Troy started his fourth at school in a relationship with Britta. On Halloween, Troy and Abed dress up as Calvin and Hobbes and Shirley warns Troy about not letting Britta pressure him into anything he isn't ready for yet. Troy, Britta Abed, Jeff and Annie all attend the Inspector Spacetime convention. He becomes jealous when Abed introduces him to a new friend he made online called Toby Weeks. He and Annie investigate Chang's mysterious return to school. Troy has a traumatic balloon ride with the rest of the study group and reveals to them his most shameful secret: he started the Greendale Fire of '03. On the anniversary of his first date with Britta, Troy pretends to "swap" bodies with Abed. It's later revealed he did this in order to avoid admitting to her that their relationship wasn't working. He eventually comes clean and breaks up with Britta. When Abed tries to piece together any unknown connections between the study group, Troy recalls how he intentionally injured his knee in a keg flip and how he previously lied about not knowing who Annie was. He later makes the group realize that their past histories are all linked by a fateful day at the Greendale Mall when they all went to Yogurtsburgh.
"History 101": Troy and Britta are now a couple and have their first fight.
"Paranormal Parentage": Shirley expresses her concern to Troy about his relationship with Britta later Britta asks Troy if the could skip Vicki's Halloween party and go watch an episode of "Inspector Spacetime".
"Conventions of Space and Time": Troy becomes jealous when Abed spends more time at the Inspector Spacetime convention with his new friend Toby Weeks.
"Cooperative Escapism in Familial Relations": Troy, Abed, Pierce and Annie attend Shirley's Thanksgiving Day dinner with her in-laws.
"Advanced Documentary Filmmaking": Troy teams up with Annie (as "Partner and Hoolihan") and discover where Chang/Kevin went when he fled Greendale the year before.
"Economics of Marine Biology": Troy struggles in a Physical Education Education class while Shirley excels.
"Herstory of Dance": Troy helps Britta with her Sophie B. Hawkins dance while vainly trying to pull pranks.
"Intro to Felt Surrogacy": Lost in the woods with the Study Group, Troy tells his most terrible secret, that he started the Greendale Fire of 2003 by trying to burn an ant hill.
"Intro to Knots": Troy becomes insecure in his relationship with Britta at a Christmas party at Jeff's apartment.
"Basic Human Anatomy": Troy and Abed swap bodies as he tries to avoid telling Britta that he wants to break up with her.
"Heroic Origins": Abed's investigation into the group's interactions before they met at Greendale reveals that Troy's keg flip that ruined his football scholarship was due to things Annie said to him at a high school party.
"Advanced Introduction to Finality": Troy sends Evil Troy back to the Darkest Timeline but shooting him in his throat voicebox.
Troy and the study group are unexpectedly reunited with Jeff for another year at Greendale Community College. They all re-enroll at the school after Jeff joins the staff as the new law professor. At Abed's insistence, Troy, Annie, Shirley and Britta take a Nicolas Cage-themed media studies course taught by Professor Sean Garrity. Troy and the rest of the group also form a teacher/student alliance called the "Save Greendale Committee". When the Ass Crack Bandit resurfaces, Troy becomes one of his victims and is traumatized by the incident. When Star-Burns confesses to the crime, Troy confronts him at a press conference and slaps him, although it is later revealed that Star-Burns is not responsible. Soon after, Shirley finds out that Pierce has died and Troy and the group attend his funeral. A man named Mr. Stone carries out Pierce's will and asks them to participate in a private inquest which makes them eligible for a share of Pierce's estate. After the inquest is done, Troy is revealed to have gotten all of Pierce's shares of Hawthorne Wipes worth over 14 million dollars. The only condition is that Troy accept the challenge of sailing around the world. Before Troy embarks on his trip, Abed hosts a campus wide game of "Hot Lava" in his honor. Troy and Abed enjoy one last adventure at school and, thanks to Britta's persistence, admit how much they will miss each other. Once the game is over, a rig pulling Pierce's sailing vessel "The Childish Tycoon", along with co-anchor LeVar Burton, arrives to pick Troy up. Troy says goodbye to everyone and climbs aboard, sharing one last look with Abed as he leaves. Sometime after their journey started it was reported that LeVar Burton and his "non-celebrity companion" were captured by pirates off the Gulf of Mexico.
"Repilot": Troy and the group return to Greendale.
"Introduction to Teaching": Troy, Abed, Shirley, Annie and Britta take a Nicolas Cage themed class.
"Cooperative Polygraphy": Troy is bequeathed Pierce's shares of Hawthorne Wipes on the condition that he sail around the world.
"Geothermal Escapism": Troy leaves Greendale Community College to pursue the challenge set up by Pierce: To sail around the world in one year. Accompanying him is his co-anchor and idol, LeVar Burton.
"Analysis of Cork-Based Networking": It's hinted by a news report that Troy was captured by pirates alongside his co-captain LeVar Burton.
Ilion or Troy: town in northwestern Asia Minor, famous for the legendary Trojan War, in which a coalition of Mycenaean warriors captured the city of king Priam. Homer's Iliad deals with an episode from this war.
Αἰπύ , as Homer calls the ancient city of Troy near the Hellespont, is almost certainly identical to the Wilusa that is called "steep" in the Hittite sources. The ancient town raises so steeply from the plain because it is built on a rocky outcrop, while the plain is a younger alluvium.
The main reason, however, is that Troy consists of nine levels of occupation on top of each other. Every time a town was destroyed, a new one was built on top of it. This makes the site extremely high, and complex. It is a classical tell .
/> One of Schliemann's "pinnacles"
It was one of the first tells that archaeologists were to investigate and Troy's famous main excavator, the German business man Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890), decided to leave several small "pinnacles" unexcavated, so that future generations would be able to check his interpretations. After all, archaeology still was a science in its infancy and Schliemann realized that, as all humans would inevitably do, he would make mistakes.
/> A two-handed cup from Troy I-V
And to be honest, he made many mistakes, even according to standards that were beginning to emerge in his own age. Accepting the classical tradition, he believed that he had to look for a city with strong walls that had been destroyed by fire. This was a working hypothesis that could be checked, but he was unprepared for more than one level of occupation. As a consequence, he ruthlessly removed everything that showed no traces of fire, until he found what he was looking for: the layer now known as Troy II, which he believed to be Homeric Troy.
When he interpreted his finds, he often looked in the Iliad and Odyssey first, even when there was no real need to. For example, he considered the find of a two-handed cup as proof of the veracity of Homer's poems, because the poet once referred to a δέπας ἀμφκύπελλον , "two-handed cup". note [Homer, Odyssey 3.43.]
Later, he concluded that he had been wrong, and decided to check whether Troy VI, where he had found the grey ceramics that he had also found in Mycene and Orchomenus, could be the city he had been looking for. He died before he could execute his plan.
/> The Schliemann Trench, with houses from Troy I
It was left to his former assistant Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1853-1940) to check the site again, and he established that Troy VI had indeed been the city that existed in the Late Bronze Age, contemporaneously with Mycene. Unfortunately, it was later established that this city had been destroyed by an earthquake. Troy VIIa was looted and sacked, but this happened in an age in which Late Helladic IIIC ceramics were common, a type of pottery not found in the great Mycenaean palaces. In other words: Troy VI was a splendid city and existed at the right moment, but was destroyed by an earthquake Troy VIIa was destroyed after a war, but in an age in which the Mycenaeans were no longer capable of organizing an expedition.
This simply means that Homer did not describe a historical event, and that is not surprising. Epics are not about historical facts, but about heroes. In the Nibelungenlied , stories about the downfall of the Burgundian dynasty have been combined with stories about a Frankish dragon slayer and a court intrigue among the Gepids the author of the Chanson de Roland has managed to introduce the wrong enemy. Greek epics are no exception.
Section of the hill of Troy /> Gate of Troy II
There is some confusion about the nomenclature of the earliest phases of Trojan history. The dozens of strata that have been identified, can be divided neatly into these nine main groups. How complex things really are, becomes clear when we look at Troy I and II. The American archaeologist Carl Blegen (1887-1971) established that there were 25 levels preceding Troy I and that Troy I and II together contained 18 levels. However, Manfred Korfmann, who investigated the site in the late twentieth century, counted 22 levels within Troy I and II and established that several strata that used to be categorized as Troy II are in fact closer to Troy I.
Because the chronology of the site has become so fragmented, a new way of organizing Troy's history has been introduced: instead of looking at the city itself, archaeologists look at the cultural context in which it existed.
Troy Timeline - History
History of Troy, New York
FROM LANDMARKS OF RENSSELAER COUNTY
BY: GEORGE BAKER ANDERSON
PUBLISHED BY D. MASON & CO. PUBLISHERS, SYRACUSE, NY 1897
TROY AS A CITY.
The original charter of the city of Troy was enacted April 12, 1816. It contained no unusual features. It constituted the inhabitants of the place a corporate body under the name of "The Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of Troy." The charter divided the city into six wards. The first, second, third and fourth were identical with those of the village as established by the law of April 4, 1806. The fifth ward comprised that section lying north of a line beginning at the bridge spanning the Poesten kill, near the grist mill of Townsend McCoun, and crossing the bridge and running along the south line of the Hollow Road until it intersected the Schuyler Road, where it turned south and ran to the south limits of the new city. The sixth ward included all the rest of the city which was not embraced in the other wards. The limits of the city were made identical in all respects with the limits of the town of Troy. as it existed at the time of the passage of the charter. The city officers provided for, by election and appointment, were a mayor, a recorder, a clerk, a marshal, a chamberlain, six aldermen, four assistant aldermen, six assessors, one or more collectors and six constables. The governor, with the consent of the Council of Appointment, had the power to appoint the mayor, the recorder and the marshal the rest of the officers to be elected annually, by the people on the second Tuesday of May in each year. Each ward was entitled to one alderman, one assistant alderman, one assessor and one constable, except the fifth and six wards, which had no assistant aldermen. The common council was composed of the mayor, the recorder, the six aldermen and the four assistant aldermen and the time and place of its meetings were subject to the call of the mayor, or in his absence the reëorder, either of whom might preside. The first charter election was held Tuesday, May 14, 1816, and the first meeting of the common council was held in the court-house the week after, May 21. Col. Albert Pawling, who had been president of the village and held that office at the time the change in the form of government was made, was elected the first mayor of the city William L. Marcy was the first recorder the first aldermen and assistant aldermen were-first ward, George Allen, alderman, Amos Salisbury, assistant second ward, Hugh Peebles, alderman, John Loudon, assistant third ward, Townsend McCoun, alderman, Gurdon Corning, assistant fourth ward, Stephen Ross, alderman, Henry Mallory, assistant fifth ward, Lemuel Hawley, alderman: sixth ward, Philip Hart, jr., alderman the first chamberlain was David Buel the first city surveyor was William McManus the first city clerk was William M. Bliss the first chief engineer of the city fire department was William S. Parker all of whom held office in 1816 in pursuance of the privileges accorded by the first city charter.
The first Sunday schools organized in Troy were those formed by the Troy Sunday School association in the summer of 1816. This association was organized July 8 with these officers: President, Joseph Russell vice-president, Silas Covell treasurer, John Loudon secretary, David Buel. In them were represented the Presbyterian, Episcopal, Methodist and Baptist denominations. The schools were undenominational and the exercises consisted principally of singing, prayers, exhortation, reading, spelling and primary Bible study, that is, verses of Scripture were committed to memory in concert.
The Troy Lyceum of Natural History was formed November 9, 1818, by the election of these officers: President, John D. Dickinson first vice-president, James Dalahy second vice president, David Buel recording secretary, Obed Rice corresponding secretary, Dr. Amatus Robbins treasurer, Albert Pawling Heartt curators, Dr. Moses Hale, Dr. Ira M. Wells and Dr. Amatus Robbins. It was the first society of its kind in America and among its members were some of the best known scientists and authors in the United States. The society was incorporated two years after its organization, March 7, 1820.
The first person to engage in the manufacture of pianos in New York State was Joshua Thurston, who came from London, England, and settled in Troy in 1819. His manufactory was a great novelty and attracted many visitors from all sections of the State.
In July, 1819, an event occurred which stirred the people of the city of Troy to widespread expressions of great indignation. Colonel Albert Pawling, who had been appointed the first mayor of the city, was a man beloved and confided in by all, regardless of party. He had been one of the greatest benefactors of the village and city and at the time of his appointment there was no opposition to him, as far as can be learned. Suddenly, and without warning of his intention, Governor DeWitt Clinton removed him from office and appointed in his place Thomas Turner, a man evidently unpopular and possessed of few qualifications for the office. The removal and new appointment resulted in a spontaneous outburst of indignation. The commission of Mr. Turner reads as follows: The People of the State of New-York, by the Grace of GOD Free and Independent:
To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting: Know Ye, That WE, reposing especial trust and confidence in the ability and integrity of Thomas Turner of our City of Troy Esquire, Have nominated, constituted and appointed, and by these Presents, Do nominate, constitute and appoint him the said Thomas Turner Esquire MAYOR of our said City of Troy hereby giving and granting unto him the said Thomas Turner, Esq., all and singular the powers and authorities to the said office by law belonging or appertaining. TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the said office of Mayor of our said City of Troy together with the fees, profits and advantages to the same belonging, for and during the term of ONE year from the date hereof. IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, We have caused these our Letters to be made Patent, and the Great Seal of our said State to be hereunto affixed: WIT. NESS our frusty and well-beloved DE WITT CLINTON, Esquire, Governor of our said State, General and Commander in Chief of all the Militia, and Admiral of the Navy of the same, by and with the advice and consent of said Council of Appointment, at our City of Albany, the third day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundered and nineteen and in the fortythird year of our Independence.
DE WITT CLINTON.
Passed the Secretary's Office, the 12th day of July, 1819.
J. V. R. YATES, Secretary.
An illustration of the popular feeling over what was considered by the people of Troy as an unwarranted abuse of power on the part of Governor Clinton may be had in the following communication, which appeared in the Troy Northern Budget July 13, 1819, the issue next following the news of the appointment of Mr. Turner. The communication was signed "A Trojan."
A report reached this city in the early part of last week that Thomas Turner had been appointed Mayor in the place of Col. Pawling, but it was so unwelcome to the great body of citizens that they were unwilling to believe it. The report however proves to be true. What has this city done to merit this indignity? If the feelings and policy of the Governor would not permit him to spare an old soldier of the Revolution-the companion in arms and ardent friend of his father and uncle the citizen of unblemished reputation, the zealous and upright magistrate-the man who with propriety may be called one of the fathers of our city, who had taken care of its infancy and watched with parental solicitude over its rising prosperity, I ask if the Governor could not spare such a man, why has he given us such a successor? The insult admits of no palliation. Mr. Clinton knew the standing of Turner: because he had been recently and reluctantly compelled to recede from his purpose of making him Sheriff of this county by the indignant voice of the people. He also knew from the expressed opinion of the most respectable men of all parties in this city, that the citizens wished the continuance of the old Mayor.
When that venerable patriot Gen. Clinton, in his declining years, expressed with feeling regret his apprehension of the evils that this state would stiffer by the unprincipled ambition of his nephew, he probably had some indistinct forebodings of the political abuses which have now fallen upon us but how inexpressibly poignant would have been his regret, if he could have foreseen the very transactions on
which I am now commenting.- A young man flew to the standard of this patriot and participated with him for seven years the dangers and sufferings by which our liberties were achieved. When he left the service of his country, he carried with him the love and affection of this patriot and the commendation of Washington. No act of his after life, disgraced this auspicious beginning. Having been a pupil in the school of the revolution his political sentiments emanated from the purest principles of republicanism.-Amidst all the changes and vicissitudes which this State has undergone, he has not erred in his political faith. In his old age he would not belie those principles which he loved in his youth, and practised in his manhood,- of course he could not be a favorite of present administration. Those very virtues which won the respect and esteem of General James Clinton and George Clinton, have drawn down upon the gray head of Col. Pawling the displeasure of Dewitt Clinton. The merit of this act belongs exclusively to the Governor, and his comfort arising from reflections on it, will excite no man's envy. I shall not attempt to do justice to public feeling on this occasion among our citizens nor comment upon other acts- of the present administration, which evinces its baseness. Let them hunt down and proscribe political virtue as much as they please, they never can make the people insensible to a want of it in themselves. The hoary headed patriot may feel their rage, but they cannot reach his reputation. Every such victim will make a martyr. Though a man more entitled to respect than the late Mayor of this city has not encountered executive ire, nor fewer qualifications to redeem the misdeed, could be found in any successor, we have this consolation that other parts of the state are suffering evils similar in kind if not equal in degree with ourselves and from this common suffering may and will arise a sense of the necessity of a remedy and if the people of this State are not tamer than the slaves of despotism in a few months, this intolerable reign, in which talents are proscribed and virtue is a victim, will have passed away forever.
In response to an overwheln-iing popular demand Mr. Turner refused to serve in the office to which he had been appointed and Mayor Pawling continued to act until February, 1820, when Esaias Warren was named as his successor.
The Rensselaer County Agricultural society was organized June 3, 1819, and the first fair under its auspices was held October 12 and 13 of the same year on the Common south of Hoosick street.
The first disastrous fire which visited the city of Troy started on the afternoon of June 20, 1820, in a stable in the rear of the residence of Colonel Davis, on the west side of First street north of Congress. A high wind from the south prevailed at the time, and within a few hours ninety buildings had been reduced to ashes. Of these sixty-nine were stores and dwelling houses. The burned property included all the buildings on the west side of First street north of and including the home of Colonel Davis, to the intersection of First and River streets, excepting the building occupied by the Bank of Troy those on the east side of River street north of and including the store of H. & G. Vail, to the intersection of First and River streets those on the west side of River street from Dr. Samuel Gale's drug store north as far as the site of the building No. 227 River street, opposite the Troy house and those on both sides of State street between First and River streets. The local fire department was helpless to prevent the spread of the flames and in response to the earnest appeals of the people of Troy fire engines were sent to the scene from Albany, Waterford and the United States arsenal at Gibbonsville (now West Troy). Upon their arrival the efforts to stay the fire were renewed with desperation and were finally successful. About three weeks after the fire a day of prayer was set apart, July 12, and the inhabitants thronged to the various churches where services were held and in deep humiliation bowed to God in submission to His will. But for many weeks the city was enshrouded in gloom over the crushing blow that had fallen upon it, ruining many of its inhabitants and retarding its progress. During the following year contributions of food, clothing and money were sent to the sufferers from all parts of the country. The total losses of the fire aggregated $700,000, on which there was an insurance of about $110,000.
The Emma Willard Female Seminary, which in later years became known throughout the entire country as a most excellent school for young ladies, was established in Troy in 1821. Mrs. Emma Willard was the wife of Dr. John Willard. In 1814 she established a boarding school for girls at Middlebury, Vt. While acting as principal of that school she conceived a plan for the incorporation and endowment of an institution for the higher education of young women. Believing that New York State offered superior advantages for the location of such a school she communicated an outline of her plan to Governor Clinton of New York, who agreed to assist her. According to his promise the governor caused to be passed a legislative enactment incorporating a female seminary at Waterlord under the care of the Regents of the University and appropriating thereto its proper quota of the public moneys. The seminary opened in Waterford in the spring of 1819. After it had been successfully incorporated the citizens of Troy, appreciating the advantages which would accrue to them from the loèation of the school in the city, proposed to Mrs. Willard that she remove the seminary to Troy, agreeing to contribute freely of their means to its establishment and maintenance. To this proposition she assented, and March 26, 1821, the common council of the city, in response to a general demand, resolved to raise by tax in the first, second, third and fourth wards the sum of $4,000 for the purchase of a suitable building. It also appointed Jeremiah Dauchy, Ephraim Morgan, Gurdon Corning, Nathan Warren, Lewis Lyman, John G Vanderheyden, Thomas Skelding, Gilbert Reilay, George Smith, Richard P. Hart and James Vandenburgh a commission to obtain suitable quarters at an expense not to exceed $5,000 and to engage a principal - for the new school. April 14, agreeable to the recommendation of this committee, the city purchased for $1,700 the "Old Coffee House," originally owned by Captain Howard Moulton, an officer in the American army during the war of the Revolution, who removed from Troy to Stafford Springs, Conn. He constructed the building in 1795. It was a three-story frame building and in its early days was the principal rival of the famous Ashley's Inn. While the "Old Coffee House" was being renovated and put in condition for the reception of the new institution Mrs. Willard became principal of the Troy Female seminary, temporarily using the lecture room of the Troy Lyceum of Natural History in the courthouse for a recitation room and the apartments of two dwelling houses near by for dormitories and study rooms. August 2 the common council appointed David Buel, jr., Joseph Russell, Nathan Warren, Richard P. Hart, Jeremiah Dauchy, James Mallory, William Bradley and Amasa Paine trustees of the school. The work of repairing the building selected for its occupancy was completed in the fall, when the school moved into it and began what proved to be a successful career. 'The seminary's first faculty consisted of the following: Principal, Mrs. Emma Willard instructors, Elizabeth Sherrill, Angelica Gilbert, Mary Heywood and Elizabeth P. Huntington assistant instructors, Sarah W. Ingalls, Mary H. Field, Mary E. Akin and Elizabeth Whiting. The first class numbered ninety pupils, twenty-nine of whom resided in Troy and the remainder coming from the States of New York, Connecticut, Vermont, Massachusetts, Ohio, South Carolina and Georgia.
A munificent enterprise, which subsequently became one of Troy's noblest institutions, had its inception in 1823, when a number of citizens petitioned the Legislature to enact a law incorporating them under the name of the Troy Savings Bank. The act was passed April 23, 1823, and named as the first managers of the institution John Gary, Derick Lane, Richard P. Hart, Gurdon Corning, John Thomas, John Paine, Nathan Warren, Lewis Lyman, Platt Titus, James Van Schoonhoven, Henry Mallory, Leland Howard, Joseph Russell, Samuel Gale, Townsend McCoun, William Bradley, Alanson Douglas, William Smith and David Buel, jr. The charter permitted the managers to make an agreement with any of the banks of the city to receive deposits and transact business on such terms and conditions as the managers might deem to be for the best interests of all. The trustees were authorized to regulate the rate of interest to be paid depositors, and the latter were to receive a ratable proportion of all the profits of the bank after all the necessary expenses had been deducted. The board of managers comprised the president, two vice-presidents and twelve trustees, the mayor and recorder of the city being ex-officio members of the body. At the first meeting of the managers held at Platt Titus's Inn August 15 Townsend McCoun was elected president, Richard P. Hart, first vicepresident, and LewisLyman, second vice-president. The by-laws were adopted at the same time and the first deposits were received August 30 at the Farmers' Bank. The wisdom of the founders of the bank may be :appreciated when it is known that it is being conducted to-day on the same general lines on which it started business over 73 years ago.
The opening of the Erie Canal to traffic October 8, 1823, was made' the occasion of quitea demonstration in Troy. A canal boat named the Trojan Trader left the city carrying the first load of merchandise sent west from the Hudson river by way of the Erie canal. The enterprise of the citizens of Troy in bringing this about was the cause of more or less bitter adverse criticism from a few cities and villages which were envious of the wideawake and progressive spirit manifested by Trojans in this great event, but in other quarters the' stroke of enterprise was commended liberally, so that in the end Troy secured a great deal of advertising, which its business men richly deserved.
An interesting incident, a fact not generally known, is that the well known Christmas poem so dear to the heart of every child, "A Visit from St. Nicholas," written by Clement Clarke Moore, LL. D., then professor of Oriental and Greek literature in the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal church in New York, was published for the first time in the Troy Sentinel December 23, 1823.
The year after the opening of the great Erie canal another memorable event occurred in Troy- the reception tendered the - great French patriot, Marquis de La Fayette, September 18, 1824. The committee in whose charge his entertainment was left comprised Colonel Albert Pawling, Colonel Derick Lane, Ephraim Morgan, Benjamin Smith, Stephen Warren, Gurdon Corning, James Mallory, George Tibbits, John D. Dickinson, Joseph Russell and John P. Cushman. The Marquis arrived at Gibbonsville (West Troy) on the packet boat Schenectady in the company of the Albany entertainment committee and mili tary escort. The packet was towed from that point to the foot of Ferry street, where he was welcomed to the city by the Hon. George Tibbits in behalf of the populace. In his reply to the greeting he received the gallant Frenchman marvelled at the great changes which had taken place in Tray since his previous visit to the village forty years before. The speech-- making was followed by a grand' parade in which the Albany and Tray military companies, a Masonic delegation and bther representatives of the city participated. In the parlors of the Tray house Recorder Thomas Clowes, in the absence of the Mayor, formally welcomed the Marquis, after which the party proceeded to St. John's hall, the Masonic headquarters, where the distinguished guest of the city was once more welcomed by the Hon. David Buel, jr. After dinner the party visited Mrs. Emma Willard at the Troy Female Seminary, and soon afterward the Marquis left the city amid the most enthusiastic plaudits of thousands of persons who had gathered upon the banks of the river.
To Stephen Van Rensselaer, the last but one of the patroons, Troy owes its most celebrated educational institution, the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, originally called the Rensselaer school. This institution was founded November 5, 1824, the donor fitting out at his own personal expense the Farmers' bank building on the northwest corner of River and Middleburgh streets. The first trustees appointed by the founder, were: The Rev. Samuel Blatchford, pastor of the First Presbyterian church of Lansingburgh Eliãs Parmelee of Lansingburgh, John Cramer and Guert Van Schoonhoven of Waterford, Samuel De Witt and T. Romeyn Beck of Albany, and John D. Dickinson and Jedediah Tracy of Tray. He named the Rev. Samuel Blatchford as president, Amos Eaton of Troy as senior professor and Lewis C. Beck of Albany as junior professor. The school was formally opened January 3, 1825, the courses prescribed being chemistry, experimental philosophy and natural history, with their application to agriculture, domestic economy and the arts. Land surveying, in which the school soon gained a world-wide reputation, was also taught. The school was incorporated March 21, 1826, and the first class was graduated in the same year. The name of the school was changed to Rensselaer Institute April 26, 1832. A more extended account of this noble institution appears in another chapter. -
March 2, 1824, Chief Justice Marshall of the United States Supreme Court handed down a decision declaring unconstitutional the law granting the North River Steamboat company the exclusive right to navigate the waters of the Hudson, and almost immediately the capitalists of Troy, who had been anxiously awaiting such a termination of the case, formed a stock company under the name of "The Tray Steamboat company" and made a contract for the construction of a large steamboat suitable for navigation on the river. August 21 of that year the Vessel, named "Chief Justice Marshall" in honor of the judge whose decision had 'made its construction possible, was launched at New York. The company was incorporated March 31, 1825, with a capital stock of $200,000, and the first passage of the boat from New York to Tray was made March 12, the boat being in charge of Captain R. W. Sherman. Trips were made regularly tliereafter down the river one night and back the next. The next spring the steamboats Constitution and Constellation began making regular trips, and in the summer the steamboat New London was purchased and added to the fleet.
The industrial progress made by the flourishing city of Tray up to this time, 1825, was a little short of marvelous Her population in that year was 7,859, an increase of nearly fifty per cent in five years. The numerous manufactories included six grist mills, three saw mills, an oil mill, a fulling mill, a cotton factory, a distillery, a shovel and spade factory, two iron furnaces, three breweries, a large machine shop, four tanneries, two shoe factories, a paper mill, a rope manufac-. tory, three carriage factories, a gun factory, two bleaching and calendering concerns and two chair factories, besides many less important manufacturing establishments.
The first steam ferry boat began making regular trips across the river at the Upper Ferry in July, 1826, being owned by John G. Vanderheyden, proprietor of the ferry. It did a thriving business and added in no small measure to the general prosperity of the city.
Early in 1826 the vestry of St. Paul's Episcopal church, upon the request of the growing congregation, decided to secure a more commodious site and build a new church edifice. The two lots on the northeast corner of State and Third streets were therefore purchased and $24,000 having been subscribed for the purpose contracts were made for the building, work upon which was begun in the spring of the following year. The corner-stone was laid April 24, 1827, by the Rev. David Butler and the building was consecrated by Bishop John H. Hobart August 16, 1828. Its total cost was $40,368.66.
Soon after the erection of the new St. Paul's was decided upon the members of the First Presbyterian church determined, February 1, 1826, to purchase a site and erect a building. May 22 the trustees purchased two lots on the southeast corner of Grand Division and Sixth streets. The building was begun the next month, the corner stone being laid July 12, and March 10, 1827, a call was extended to the Rev. Mark Tucker of Northampton, Mass., to become pastor. The church was dedicated July 18 and the Rev. Mr. Tucker was installed pastor October 31.
The congregation of St. Peter's Roman Catholic church, which had been organized in 1825, and which had held its first services in a school house at the corner of Second and Ferry streets, SOOU feeling the need of better and more commodious quarters, in the summer of 1826 concluded to erect a home of their own if possible. In response to an appeal from the members of the church a sufficient sum of money was soon subscribed and in the latter part of October in that year the lot on the northeast corner of Hutton and North Second streets was deeded to the society by John D. Dickinson and others in consideration of the payment of six cents The work of constructing a small frame building was begun soon after and February 19, 1827, "the trustees of St. Peter's church" were incorporated. The building was consecrated in 1830 by Bishop John Du Bois of New York.
The years 1827 and 1828 were marked by wonderful prosperity in all lines of trade and industry in Troy. In the former year the city grew as it had never grown before, no less than 330 buildings of all kinds being constructed. The business of the city was the greatest that year it had ever known. Money was plentiful and everybody was happy, from the greatest capitalist to the poorest mechanic or laborer. Travel to the city had increased so that it was found necessary to make considerable additions to the principal hotel, the Troy house, and to build another hotel, the Mansion house, which was begun in the latter year by Nathan Warren. In the following year, 1829, the work of paving River street with cobblestones was begun, the houses on the principal streets were numbered and the proud growing city began to take on metropolitan airs at a rapid rate. The local census of 1828 showed the population to be 10,840, an increase of more than 3,000 souls in three years- phenomenal development even for those days. A year later it was deemed advisable to organize another bank, which was incorporated April 29, 1829, under the name of the Merchants' and Mechanics' Bank of Troy. It opened its doors for business February 12, 1830, with a capital stock of $300,000. The bank was at first located in the Mansion house, with George Vail as president and Alanson Douglas as cashier. Its brick building at No. 16 First street was occupied for the first in 1830.
May 1, 1830, the Daily Troy Sentinel, the first daily newspaper issued in Troy, was published for the first time by Tuttle & Gregory. Its office was at No. 225 River street and it was edited by 0. L. Holley. It was well patronized, both by subscribers and advertisers, and the merchants and manufacturers looked upon it as a valuable addition to the industries of Troy. It was issued every afternoon except Sundays.
A number of the members of St. Paul's church having determined to form a separate congregation and erect another church, independent religious services were held by them, in charge of a layman, in the Presbyterian session house at No. 71 Fourth street. November 22, 1830, officers were elected and the new church was named St. John's church. January 13 of the next year the old St. Paul's church on State street was purchased and the Rev. John A. Hicks of Easton, Pa., was called to the pastorate, assuming his duties the following May.
April 18, 1831, an act was passed by the Legislature incorporating the Troy Turnpike and Railroad company, the stockholders of which were Lewis Burtis, Stephen Ross, David Gleason, Stephen Eldridge, Anson Arnold, Abraham Van Tuyl, John Burtis, jr., Alsop Weed and Robert D. Silliman. The charter authorized them to construct a turnpike road from the west end of the Troy and Bennington road in Hoosick street in Troy, to the town of Bennington or the town of Pownal, Vt. It also gave them power to build a single or double railroad from Troy to either or both of the Vermont towns. The capital stock was limited to $100,000. Work upon the turnpike was begun at once and for many years it was an important highway and stage route.
The "burying ground on the hill," as it was generally known, having become about filled with graves, January 1, 1832, the city authorities purchased 12½ acres of land on the south side of the Poesten kill and east of the road to Albia, which they named Mount Ida Cemetery. Three years afterward,. February 5, 1835, a portion of it was sold to St. Peter's Catholié church, and was used as a burying ground by that denomination.
When the Asiatic cholera was expected in Troy in 1832, on its awful journey throughout the country, the militia were ordered out to keep from the city several canal boats loaded with emigrants and reported as having cholera victims aboard. These boats came down the Champlain canal from Canada: In describing the ravages of cholera in. Troy William E. Hagan, esq., writing in the Troy Press June 19, 1890, said: Some of the proceedings which the excitement at that time stimulated were ridiculous in the extreme, and particularly the conduct of one Col. Dillon Beebe, who commanded the militia here that Sunday afternoon, when he, in full uniform and with a great array of rooster feathers in his cocked hat, strode up through the aisle of the First Presbyterian church (Dr. Beman's), and without ceremony broke in upon the doctor's discourse in a loud stentorian voice ordering all the members of the militia there present to immediately appear armed and equipped as the law directed at Washington square. Some of the women present fainted, others laughed at the ridiculousness of the performance, but at all events it broke up the. meeting.
But it was found that the boats contained a colony of Swedes bound for the West, and thatthere was not a sick. person amongst them.
But the cholera did visit Troy within a fortnight after the departure of the Swedish emigrants. . . . . The first person to die of the cholera in 1832 was James E. Prescott. The next death was that of one Henry O'Neal, and after the latter occurred there were many others. Amongst the old residents Asa Anthony was the .firstto pass away. He was the. father of Prof. Charles H. Anthony, for many years the principal of the Troy . academy, and long since dead. Capt. Snow, a prominent North River captain who lived at No. 43 Third street, was also one of the victims.
The most remarkable death occasioned was that of Archie Weaver, a blacksmith whose shop stood on the southwest corner of Congress and Third streets. He wasa man of large size and of great strength. He was boasting in the morning of how he would conquer the disease should it attack him. He was taken ill about three o'clock in the afternoon and died at nine o'clock in the evening, and was buried the same night. The cholera victims of the epidemic of 1832 were in the main buried in the Mount Ida cemetery, where a long row of the graves may still be seen. .
Since 1832 the cholera has twice visited Troy, in 1849 and in 1853.. During the latter year it was more fatal in its effects than before. Fortunately for the people of the present day, Dr. William P. Seymour was health officer during the prevalence of the cholera in 1853, and he was by education and personal ability well fitted to tabulate all the phenomenal statistics which attended its visitation.
A new era was opened in the history of Troy with the construction of the first line of railroad having the city for a terminus. In 1826 a railroad was projected, to run from Troy to Schenectady, but the people were enthusiastic supporters of the Erie and the Champlain canals and few friends for the railroad proposed could be found. Such an enterprise was not deemed necessary and few believed that it would provide superior transportation facilities to those of the canals or that it would pay its builders. Nevertheless the people of Albany thought otherwise and plans were soon made for and work begun upon the Mohawk & Hudson railroad, extending from Albany to Schenectady. This road was completed in 1832. At this time the trade of Northern New York, especially of Saratoga and Washington counties, was assuming considerable proportions. In order to draw this trade from Troy, to which it most naturally would flow, the people of Albany attempted to divert it from that channel by the construction of a branch line from Schenectady to Saratoga Springs. Undaunted, the business men of Troy at once set to work to secure a charter for a new road from Troy to Baliston Spa, a distance of nearly twenty-six miles. This franchise was granted them April 14, 1832, the articles of incorporation naming as the first directors George Griswold, John Cramer, Elisha Tibbits, John Knickerbacker, Richard P. Hart, Townsend McCoun, Nathan Warren, Stephen Warren, Le Grand Cannon, George Vail, Moses Williams, John P. Cushman and John Paine. Work upon the road, which was called the Rensselaer & Saratoga railroad, was begun the next year and October 6, 1835, the first passenger train crossed the bridge between Troy and Green Island. The northern terminus of the road was in the south end of the village of Baliston Spa, and the southern terminus was at No. 10 First street, Troy, the present site of the Athenaeum building. From the bridge the cars were drawn by horses down River street, turning into First in front of the Troy house, the engine leaving the train at the bridge. While the Rensselaer & Saratoga road extended only as far north as Baliston Spa, the Schenectady branch of the Mohawk & Hudson road had been built as far north as Saratoga Springs, the latter road thereby securing a monopoly of the traffic between Saratoga Springs and Ballston Spa. As soon as the Rensselaer & Saratoga road had been completed an endeavor was made to enter into an agreement with the other road whereby the passenger and freight traffic of the Rensselaer & Saratoga might be carried on north of Baliston Spa over the tracks of the Schenectady & Saratoga road. The project was selfishly opposed, however, by the management of the latter road, comprised almost wholly of inhabitants of Albany, who were jealous of Troy's commercial success, and doubtless would have come to naught had it not been for the fact that the directors of the Rensselaer & Saratoga road had an unexpected opportunity to purchase of a New York broker a sufficient number of shares of stock of the other road to give them its control. This settled the question and the two roads thereafter worked in harmony. Direct communication between the village of Troy and the village of Saratoga Springs was at once established, giving additional prestige to Troy as a commercial centre and securing for its merchants and manufacturers that of which the rival city of Albany had tried to deprive them.
The first cars used on the Rensselaer & Saratoga railroad were made by Gilbert, Veazie & Eaton, then famous Troy car builders. The passenger cars were looked upon as marvels of beauty, crude as they were, and were twenty-four in number. They were twenty-four feet long, eight feet wide and a little over six feet high inside, and each was divided into three apartments. The seats were "cushioned and, backed with crimson morocco, trimmed with coach lace each apartment is surrounded by movable panels, thus affording the comforts and facilities of either a close or open carriage to suit the convenience of the passengers."
The existing improved system of waterworks in Troy had its inception in 1833 and 1834. The old Conduit company, to which reference has been made in preceding pages, supplied the residents of Troy with water until 1833, when a new reservoir was constructed for the purpose of increasing the supply and the storage capacity. April 18, 1829, the Troy Water Works company had been incorporated, with a capital stock of $250,000: Surveys having been made and an abundance of excellent water having been found, the old corporation surrendered its rights to the city and its property was soon afterward purchased for a small sum. The necessary land and the water privileges of the Piscawen kill were soon obtained, and in the spring of 1833 the construction of a dam and reservoir was begun. These were completed the next year and showed a total capacity of about 450,000 gallons. The streets were piped for the distribution of the water, and soon two more reservoirs, holding 1,000,000 gallons were constructed. Other reservoirs were constructed on the Piscawen kill in 1843 and again in 1853 as the demand for water grew, and thus the system developed gradually to its present proportions.
April 5, 1831, the Troy Insurance company was incorporated, remaining in business ten years. Its predecessor, the Rensselaer & Saratoga Insurance company, passed out of existence in 1840 after doing business 26 years. May 14, 1836, the Mechanics' Mutual Insurance company of the City of Troy received a charter, which it retained until 1856, when it wound up its affairs and discontinued business.
One of the most important industries established in Troy 'about this time. was the Troy India Rubber company, which was granted a charter by the Legislature May 4, 1836, with a capital stock of a quarter of a million dollars.. The company's factory, a big one for those days, was a brick structure located on the west side of the Greenbush road a short distance south of the Poesten kill. The factory with its contents was destroyed by fire the same year, but new buildings were at once erected and 120 people were employed.
An exciting event of the year 1836 in Troy was the mobbing of Theodore D. Weld, a distinguished philanthropist, in the Bethel, a mission church founded for the spiritual benefit of boatmen, located on the northwest corner of Fifth and Elbow Streets, the present site of the Fifth Avenue hotel. At that time the majority of the inhabitants of Troy were opposed to the then increasing movement for the abolition of slavery, and many bitter controversies had arisen between the abolitionists and those who advocated non-interference with the South. Mr.. Weld had delivered several lectures on the subject of slavery and had attracted large audiences to the Bethel. Soon after he had arrived in Troy there appeared in one of. the city papers - an incendiary communication regarding him and his teachings which stirred the proslavery people up to a high state, of excitement. On the afternoon of June 2 Mr. Weld was delivering a lecture in the church before a large audience, when a mob entered and attacked him, attempting to drag him from the pulpit. A struggle between members of the congregation and the mob ensued, in which the former were victorious, after which the lecturer was conducted from the church to a place of safety by Henry Z. Hayner, a prominent lawyer who had held the leader of the mob at bay. The incident created intense excitement throughout the city and doubtless strengthened the ranks of the local abolitionists.
A memorable event in the history of Troy was a catastrophe which occurred early in the evening of Sunday, January 1, 1837, when an immense quantity of clay, which had been loosened through the combined influences of frosts and thaws, slid down the west side of Ida hill, or Mount Ida, burying three dwelling houses, in which were seven persons, and two stables, containing twenty two horses. The avalanche came with such terrific force as to carry everything before it for a distance of four or five hundred feet westward on the level, covering several acres of land. John Grace and his wife were instantly killed and two young sons of Mrs. Leavenworth were crushed in a shocking manner. Sixteen of the twenty-two horses were killed. The accident created th.e wildest sensation for a time.
The St. Patrick's Day mob in Troy, March 17, 1837, was another sensational incident in which several persons were badly injured and considerable property ruined or damaged, all on account of the antics of a lot of young boys. Early in the morning effigies were suspended from trees and buildings in different sections of the city for the evident purpose of bringing the holiday into disrepute. During the morning one Irish resident, incensed at the sight, attempted to pull down one of the figures which was suspended at the foot of Ferry street but was prevented from doing so by a crowd of men and boys. Soon afterwards he returned to the scene with a crowd of his fellow countrymen and - an incipient riot at once followed. Missiles were thrown through the air, injuring several persons, some quite severely. Among these were John P. Cole, whose wounds were of a very serious nature, and another man who was knocked down and beaten by the enraged Irishmen. Several buildings were attacked, the store of Theodorus Valleau being badly damaged. Mayor Richard P. Hart, attended by other city officials, commanded the rioters to disperse, which they did temporarily, but they soon returned to renew their depredations.. Finding they could not be controlled by peaceable means the Citizens Corps was ordered out under arms at noon, but even this summary proceeding was not effectual, as the rioting continued at intervals the rest of the day and during the evening, when the mob went so far as to fire guns into the crowd, seriously injuring several persons. The rioters finally dispersed, being overawed by the militia. As a result of the trouble about twenty of the ringleaders were sentenced to jail.
During the period of business depression in the United States whièh began in 1837 Troy was seriously affected with other cities. The Troy banks were finally compelled to suspend specie payments and for the purpose of continuing business James A. Zander, then city commissioner, assumed the personal responsibility of issuing temporary local currency, a plan followed in many other cities of the- country. Bills of four denominations-one, two, three and four shillings, of 12½ cents each-were printed and widely circulated for several years. These read as follows: On demand, I promise to pay to the bearer, --- cents in New York Safety Fund bills, on the presentation of Five Dollars at my office. Troy, July 1st, 1837. James A. Zander.
The people had confidence in Mr. Zander, who was famed for his integrity, and the bills practically saved the business of Troy. They were eventually redeemed by the city.
The city was increased in size in 1836 by the addition of a part of the town of Lansingburgh, the northern boundary of Troy then being established as it has since remained. April 22, 1837, the Legislature passed an act dividing the fourth ward into two wards, that part lying north of a line running through the middle of Jacob street becoming the seventh ward. Those parts of the first and sixth wards lying between Liberty street and Canal avenue by the same law became the eighth ward.
The market facilities of Troy were greatly improved during the years 1839 and 1840 by the erection of two brick market buildings. The first was Fulton market, which was built on the site of the old shipyard on the southwest corner of River and Elbow (Fulton) streets the other was Washington market, situated on the southwest corner of Division and Second streets. In the second story of each building was a large hall in which public meetings of all kinds were held. Both markets were opened to the public in May, 1841. The first market in Troy had been established forty years before in a long, low wooden building in the middle of State street between First and Second streets. Six years later, in 1806, a new market building was erected' on the northwest corner of Third and State streets, and in 1812 two other markets were built, one in the northern part and the other in the southern part of the village. To meet the increasing demands, sixteen years later a new North market was erected on the south, side of Federal street, between River street and Fifth avenue, and a new South market was built on the northeast corner of Division and Second streets. The market on Third and State streets then became Centre market. All these markets were finally abandoned when the new markets were established in 1839.
April 13, 1839, the Troy Episcopal Institute, which had been established the preceding year by Rev. William F. Walker, rector of Christ Episcopal church, was incorporated. It was located on the east side of Eighth street between Federal and Jacob streets, one of the finest sites in the city. The school was not a paying institution and after a career of less than three years it was closed.
In the summer of 1840 transportation facilities to and from Troy were greatly enhanced by the construction of the' handsome passenger and freight steamer Troy, which began regular trips between Troy and New York July 17. The steamer was 294 feet in length and 61 feet in width and cost $100,000, a large sum to be put into a steam vessel in that period. The Troy was well patronized by all classes of trade and its owners soon realized that it would not be long before they would be compelled to put a companion boat on the line.
Five years after the people of Troy had shown the inhabitants of Albany that they were not dependent upon the latter for railroad facilities and had begun the operation of the Rensselaer & Saratoga railroad, the construction of another line of road was begun under circumstances somewhat similar. When the Rensselaer & Saratoga road was constructed the Trojans consulted the business men and capitalists of Albany, with the end in view of securing their consent to the extension of the Utica & Schenectady railroad to Troy. The application was vigorously opposed by Albanians, however, who believed that by refusing to give their consent to the plan the matter would be dropped in Troy, and the rapidly increasing and very valuable trade of Central and Western New York would continue to be monopolized by the business men of Albany. But the latter evidently had not reckoned upon the indomitable energy which characterized the people of Troy, though it had been illustrated in an emphatic manner, for the Legislature was immediately petitioned, May 21, 1836, to pass an act incorporating the Schenectady & Troy Railroad company. This request was granted and, the Rensselaer & Saratoga railroad having been found to be a paying institution, work was begun in 1840 upon the road connecting Troy and Schenectady. The expense of the work, $649,142, was borne by the city of Troy, which bonded itself for that amount. The first regular trains were run over the road beginning in November, 1842, the cars being drawn by horses across the Rensselaer & Saratoga railroad bridge to the company's office on River street. In the spring of the following year the tracks were extended along River street from the Troy house to State street, in order that both roads might land and receive passengers and freight at the steamboat landing. The business of both the railroad company and the steamboat company had begun to assume large proportions. The steamer Empire, a companion boat to the Troy, began running regularly between Troy and New York May 17, 1843, bringing additional business to the railroads. The Empire was much larger than the Troy, being 330 feet in length, with 360 berths and 72 staterooms.
The development of local transportation facilities boomed in those days. With a railroad from Troy to Saratoga and another from Troy to Schenectady with a double line of steamboats from Troy to New York and adequate ferriage across the Hudson, the people of Troy began to see great possibilitiesin a railroad to New York city. As early as April 17, 1832, a charter was granted the New York and Albany Railroad company, upon the application to the Legislature of a number of the representative men of Troy and Albany. The - act permitted the construction of a railroad from the junction of Fourth avenue and the Harlem river in New York to a point opposite or near the city of Albany, with power to extend the road to Troy. The building of the road was delayed for several years, but in 1840 and 1841 a track was laid from Greenbush to Troy but its use was temporarily prohibited by the passage of a law in 1842, which provided that that section of the road was- not to be used until $250,000, in addition to the amount previously expended, were actually paid out for the construction of that portion of the New York & Albany railroad south of the northern bou-ndary of Columbia county. This legislation was enacted, it was charged, at the instanceof Troy's old-time enemy, Albany, which was still jealous of the commercial supremacy of the former city. Within three years, however, the $250,000 called for by law had been expended on the New York & Albany road, and May 11, 1845, the people of Troy secured a charter for the road which they had built, under the name of the Troy & Greenbush Railroad company, and one month later trains on the road began making regular trips. The road extended to Washington street, at which point it intersected the Schenectady & Troy railroad, and the cars were drawn by horses over the track on River street to the station built in 1845 at the intersection of River and King streets. The office of the road was at No. 161 River street. June 1, 1851, the road was leased to the Hudson River Railroad company, the local company retaining the management of the business between Troy and Albany. In July, 1851, an office was established at No. 197 River street by the Hudson River Railroad company and in December of the same year through trains between Troy and New York began running on the new road.
A good idea of the general impression of Troy among strangers at this time may be gathered from the following extracts from "Historical Collections of the State of New York," etc., written by John W. Barber, a noted historical writer, and Henry Howe, also a writer of considerable repute, and published in New York in 1841:
Rolls A "1" - Troy Got The Pizza
In the timeline in which Jeff rolled a 1, Troy was the one who went to get the pizza downstairs. He hurried out of the apartment, causing the boulder from Abed's Indiana Jones diorama to fall on the ground. With Shirley in the kitchen and Britta in the bathroom smoking, Annie attempted to help Jeff after he hit his head. She then slipped on the boulder and hit the coffee table, which caused Pierce's rum to spill all over the floor. When Pierce tried to help her, her purse hit the ground, discharging the gun she had inside. Pierce got shot in the leg before Britta dropped her joint, igniting the rum on the floor. Annie tried to tend to Pierce's wound, but blood sprayed all over Shirley's pies.
When Troy came back, the apartment was still on fire, and the Norwegian troll doll stared at him amidst the flames. In the aftermath, Pierce died from his wound, Annie was forced into an institution due to guilt, Shirley turned to alcohol, Jeff lost an arm, and Troy burnt his larynx trying to eat the burning troll doll. This chain of events became known as the "Darkest Timeline," and the figures in that scenario tried to cross the prime timeline on multiple occasions.
On April 24, 1184 B.C., at least according to traditionalists, the city of Troy fell to Greek invaders, thus bringing about the end of the epic Trojan War that began some ten years earlier in 1194 B.C.
The story of this war has been repeated and altered many times since whatever actually occurred in history. A consistent element of the ever-evolving story, however, is that it all began with perhaps the most beautiful woman of her era: Helen of Troy.
Helen of Troy by Evelyn De Morgan (1898, London) Helen admiringly displays a lock of her hair, as she gazes into a mirror decorated with the nude Aphrodite.
Before the war began, the beautiful Helen was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, brother of King Agamemnon of Mycenae, who was married to Helen’s sister. The two brother’s ruled over two of the most powerful city-states in Ancient Greece and thus had influence over many of the other Greek city-states of the time.
A crisis arose when Prince Paris of the also powerful city-state of Troy arrived in Greece, fell in love with Helen, and took her back with him from Europe to Troy, a city located in Asia Minor across the Aegean Sea. T he outraged brothers, Menelaus and Agamemnon, rallied their fellow Greeks to war against Troy for what they saw as treachery by a Trojan prince who had come to them as a diplomat and departed with a Spartan queen. The ensuing war dragged on for some ten years and only concluded with what is probably the most famous act of deception in military history.
Unable to breech the formidable walls of Troy, the Greeks came up with a brilliant trick, the brain-child of the wily King Odysseus of Ithaca. A giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans, was built from the wood of a tree grove sacred to god Apollo, with the inscription: “The Greeks dedicate this thank-offering to Athena for their return home,” but the Greeks did not actually return home. Instead, the hollow horse was filled with soldiers led by the legendary hero Odysseus. The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos, an island where they could hide their fleet while Odysseus and his men carried out their mission in Troy.
When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they joyfully dragged the horse inside the city, while they debated what to do with it. Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.
Both Cassandra (a daughter of the king and queen of Troy) and Laocoön (a Trojan priest) warned against keeping the horse. Nevertheless, the Trojans decided to keep the horse and turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration. During that night, an Achaean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos when it was midnight and the clear moon was rising and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards and opened the gates to the city.
The earliest known depiction of the Trojan Horse, from the Mykonos vase c. 670 BC
Troy was then sacked by the rampaging Greeks in a horrific episode of rape and pillage. The number of men, women, and children who were ruthlessly raped or murdered is unknown, but among the victims were King Priam of Troy who was slain and his daughter Cassandra who was raped. Priam’s infant grandson was thrown by the Greeks down from the walls of Troy!
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, kills King Priam (detail of Attic black-figure amphora, 520–510 BC)
As for Helen, the woman with the face that launched the thousand ships to begin the war, her former husband Menelaus intended to kill Helen, but, overcome by her beauty, threw down his sword and took her to the ships.
Helen and Menelaus: Menelaus intends to strike Helen captivated by her beauty, he drops his sword. A flying Eros and Aphrodite (on the left) watch the scene. Detail of an Attic red-figure krater c. 450–440 BC (Paris, Louvre)
Thus concludes a great, classic story, albeit at times rather terrifying, but did it actually happen? Unfortunately, our primary sources of this conflict are filled with all kinds of supernatural occurrences that modern scholars doubt really took place. The gods and goddesses of Ancient Greek mythology are major characters in the original accounts of the Trojan War, frequently intervening in the various events described above. So, if these divine beings and their interventions are not real, then how much of the rest of the story is also fiction? Was there really a Helen of Troy and an Odysseus or is their appearance in the stories of the Trojan War akin to Indiana Jones or Captain America battling the Nazis in more recent popular culture? We know there were Nazis, sure, but we also know they did not face off against these modern heroes. Imagine, however, some kind of disaster occurring where our only available sources of the 1930s and 1940’s were the Indiana Jones and Captain America films. That possibility is essentially what we have with the regards to the Trojan War and our sources about it.
Question for students (and subscribers): What do you think? Archaeological evidence suggests that Troy existed, but is there any truth to the traditional accounts of the war itself? Do you think Helen, Odysseus, etc. were real people? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.
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For more information, please see…
Graves, Robert and Dan-el Padilla Peralta. The Siege and Fall of Troy. Triangle Square, 2018.
The featured image in this article, a painting by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) of The Burning of Troy (1759/62), is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author’s life plus 70 years or fewer.
Chain of events
In this particular timeline, Troy races out to get the pizza, shutting the front door very hard on his way out. The force of that causes a part of Abed's Indiana Jones diorama, the boulder, to roll off onto the floor. Shirley leaves the table to check on her pies in the kitchen. Jeff stops Britta from singing, and she goes to the bathroom to light up a joint. Pierce asks Jeff about his father, causing Jeff to get up from the table to get a drink. Jeff hits his head on the ceiling fan, and Annie offers to take a look at his injury in the bathroom. On the way there, Annie trips on the still rolling boulder and falls onto the coffee table.
Pierce's bottle of Serbian rum, which was resting on top of it, goes flying. It crashes, spilling rum all over the floor. After seeing Annie's fall, Pierce quickly stands up to offer assistance and kicks his housewarming present, the Norwegian Troll doll, across the floor. Annie's purse lands on the ground, and the jolt causes the gun inside to discharge and shoot Pierce in the leg. Britta hears the commotion and stumbles out of the bathroom, dropping the joint she was smoking onto the floor. The lighted joint lands on the floor where the Serbian rum is, igniting it and causing a fire to break out. Annie goes to help Pierce as blood sprays out of his wound.
The blood covers Shirley who had just exited the kitchen with her finished pies. Jeff tries to put out the fire while a disoriented Britta runs to the kitchen to get water to help him. Troy then returns with the pizzas. Shocked at the scene in front of him, he notices the Norwegian Troll staring at him, surrounded by flames and the remnants of its burnt box. In the aftermath of these events Pierce has died from his leg wound, Annie is institutionalized due to her guilt, Jeff lost an arm after trying to put out the fire, Troy severely injured his larynx trying to destroy the Norwegian Troll doll by eating it while it was on fire and Shirley has become an alcoholic.
The only one unscathed was Britta who dyed a streak of blue in her hair which Jeff points out is something she did, not something she experienced. The Abed of that timeline suggests that they somehow find a way to return to the "prime" timeline and replace the study group there. Out of black felt he cuts out black Van Dyke shaped beards and passes them out to the other members. He refers to them as goatees and asks them to wear it as a symbol of their evilness until they can grow a real one. Most of the group rejects this idea, too traumatized by their own fates. However, Troy puts on his felt beard, and he and Abed perform their signature handshake saying, "Evil Troy and Evil Abed".
Crossing into the Prime Timeline
As the groups third year continues, Abed and Troy are shown to be growing distant. When Abed goes into The Dreamatorium by himself, Evil Abed appears to him. Evil Abed begins to subtly influence Abed to further his own agenda ("Contemporary Impressionists"). Sometime later, Star-Burns seemed to have died in a meth-lab explosion and a lawyer missing his right arm delivered his video will to Abed, possibly foreshadowing the arrival of Evil Jeff ("Course Listing Unavailable"). After inciting a riot at school at Star-Burns wake, the group is expelled from Greendale. They all gathers in Troy and Abed's apartment to commiserate which ends up mirroring events from the housewarming party.
Due to the gloomy atmosphere, Shirley contemplates drinking again. When the pizza they ordered arrives, Jeff suggests rolling a die to choose who will get it and once Britta volunteers she is immediately smitten when she sees Toby the pizza guy. Abed wonders if the timeline they are in now is the Darkest Timeline since they have all been kicked out of school. Troy rejects the idea, insisting that they will all survive their expulsion since they're all alive, and they still have each other. Troy's speech raises the spirits of the group, causing Shirley not to drink. After he compliments Britta, she quickly loses interest in Toby and avoids the fate from her timeline ("Course Listing Unavailable").
After the group clears their name and are allowed to return to Greendale, Abed sinks into a depression since Troy was forced to join the Air Conditioning Repair School . Evil Abed appears to take over his body, dons a felt goatee and attempts to recreate The Darkest Timeline. He causes Britta to become depressed causing her to consider dying her hair. Evil Abed gets a bone saw, intending to make the Prime timeline Jeff just like his own one armed Jeff. However, when he encounters Jeff in the courtroom, he finds himself moved by the speech he is giving about friendship and selflessness. Evil Abed's felt beard falls off, and he "leaves" Abed's body ("Introduction to Finality").
The return of the Darkest Timeline
In the study group's fourth year together at Greendale, Jeff throws an eventful Christmas party at his apartment. After exchanging gifts, Abed wonders what is happening now in the Darkest timeline. A montage is then shown featuring Evil Jeff in a courtroom pleading with a judge to release Evil Annie. She had been committed to the Greendale insane asylum for robbery and assault. After he secures her freedom, he and Annie kiss. Jeff then tells her that he and the rest of the group are now plotting the destruction of the "Prime Timeline" ("Intro to Knots").
Towards the end of the school year, Jeff is hesitant about graduating and imagines a scenario where Evil Jeff "crosses" into the prime timeline. Evil Annie is with him who gives him a fake second arm to blend in. Evil Jeff then makes his way to the various members of the study group to sow dissension between them. Only Abed sees through his disguise and Evil Jeff uses a special paintball gun to transport him to the darkest timeline. Once there Abed meets the Abed of that timeline who has renounced his evil ways. With his doppelgänger’s help Abed is sent back to the prime timeline. Meanwhile, Evil Annie finds the original Jeff and attempts to seduce him.
Jeff rebuffs her advances only to be confronted by his evil counterpart who attempts to shoot him. However, Chang jumps in front of paintball bullet and takes the hit allowing Jeff to escape. As Evil Jeff and Annie recuperate the rest of the evil study group then appears. Over at Troy and Abed's apartment, Jeff tries to warn the study group about the duplicate invasion. They are only convinced when Abed returns and demonstrates the Darkest Timeline paintball tech he has with him. He arms his friends with the equipment and they leave for Greendale to face off against their counterparts. Back at school, the Evil Study Group go the cafeteria only to encounter Evil Pierce.
Pierce tells them he faked his own death to teach them all a lesson. Evil Jeff then says the first to shoot themselves will win which Evil Pierce proceeds to do along with Evil Britta. The Prime Timeline study group then makes their presence known and a paintball battle breaks out. Each one takes out their evil counter part until only Evil Jeff is left standing. Abed then reminds Jeff that this is all his imagination and he can make the scenario go anyway he wants. Jeff dodges Evil Jeff's bullet and then shoots him back to the darkest timeline. After his reverie is over, Jeff catches the die he had attempted to roll earlier ("Advanced Introduction to Finality").
Troy Timeline - History
These resources have a focus on American History. They should serve APUSH, HOA, and US History/Geo very well.
These are all great resources. Items with *** indicate that they will be a great help in IB HOA
*** Ask a Historian - Teaching History
This site is full of content that will support student inquiry. The site is hosted by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. The "Ask a Historian" section is great!
8 Ted Talks for U.S. History
This site has 8 different TED Talks videos that may interest students wanting to learn more about a certain subject that pertains to these 8 videos. TED talks videos are refreshing and students will gain more insight and find new perspectives of the United States.
This site is provided by the National Humanities Center. It contains a collection of primary documents from American history, and is categorized by historical era. The date range for the documents is 1492-1968.
American History Timeline
This timeline is a part of the Animated Atlas website that is done by Peter Mays and goes along with his series "Growth of a Nation." Specifically, this timeline of American History goes from 1780-2010. The site contains many sources and even teaching resources for various social studies subjects.
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This site, is a site that you can visit to find out anything that happened on a particular date in history. You simply type in the date and the site will give you the names of anyone important in history that were born or died on that date and the year. The site also gives information about key events that happened on that date and the year as well.
Chronicling America is a website hosted by the library of congress that acts as a database for thousands of historic american newspapers. The site includes many scanned newspapers from all across the United States.
Civil War Interactive History
This is a part of History.com It is a very interactive piece of the website. Concentrated on the Civil War it is very helpful to get a different, interactive story of the war. It is very easy to use and incredibly insightful.
*** Digital History
This site contains information about every era in American history from the pre-Columbus era to the twenty first century. In addition to overviews of the eras, the site contains primary-source resources as well as lesson plans for teaching American history.
Discover Washington is a website designed to familiarize students with the life and accomplishments of America’s first president. The site includes an interactive timeline highlighting his military career, time as president, and his homelife.
Early Americas Digital Archive
This site is very simple, but it seems as though it can be very effective. It is essentially a database of documents from and concerning America from 1492 to 1820. While containing these articles, it also provides links to other early American texts on the internet.
This site has it all. You can explore old history films, watch videos, do a few activities, and explore different subjects. Topics range from Colonial America to The Flag and even Washington DC. It is very easy to navigate and so much to explore and have fun with history.
This site provides information on key events about the holocaust, it also provides resources such as pictures, videos, and speeches that you can view. The site gives a brief rundown starting with Adolf Hitler and ending with World War II.
John F. Kennedy Library
This is the website that corresponds with President John F. Kennedy's Library. Specifically, this link will take you to the Civil Rights portion of the site. This online resource is full of biographies of famous leaders as well as primary sources to use for discovery and inquiry.
This site utilizes internet based research in order for students to learn more about Colonial America. Students will write about a character listed in the site based off of 13 resources provided. This website is definitely creative and hands-on. What are you waiting for, go on in!
This website is super helpful for both History and for geography. It has many interactive maps to show different events in history laid out in map form. You can also test your skills to see how much you actually know about our country. I think this is a great learning tool for any history or geography class.
Library of Congress Prints & Photograph Catalog
The LOC’s catalog of prints and photographs from American History is an excellent source of primary documents. These images are available free to the public. They offer a unique insight into the art and culture of the American Past.
This is the official website of the federal government’s archives. It offers a massive collection of primary sources regarding U.S. history that can be overwhelming to search through. However, there are sections entirely devoted to students which simplifies navigating through this database.
This site has information about the colonial settlements in America. The “Interactive History” section in particular has various games and simulations that students can interact with to learn more about the lives of those traveling to and living in the American colonies.
This is a site created by PBS that shares historical information and media. The site has great videos that can be used in and out of the classroom. The website uses your location to bring local history to your fingertips while bringing a diverse and introspective look into our history.
Salem Witch Trials: Documentary Archive and Transcription Project
This site archives the Salem Witch Trials and all sorts of information concerning them, including letters, court records, and maps of the area. The information is very educational and presented in an easy-to-use format. The site is backed by the University of Virginia and would contribute greatly to any teacher attempting to inform their students of the Salem Witch Trials.
Social Studies Central
This site, created by Glenn Wiebe a former social studies teacher, provides resources and ideas with an emphasis on social studies teachers. There are resources to weekly tips form Glenn and his co-workers as well as blogs and online resources to support teachers.
This site has everything. It is so easy to navigate and has been around for ages. The Independence Hall Association is a highly credible history source. There are free textbooks, history headlines, many other resources. I would highly recommend this site to any history teacher.