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The First Crusade was proclaimed in 1095 by Pope Urban II and had an important religious motive: the reconquest of the city of Jerusalem by Christians.
Since 1076, Muslims had conquered the holy city and, through military protection, made it difficult for pilgrims to seek one of the most important places where Jesus Christ passed.
In fact, the First Crusade was not a single movement, but a set of warlike actions of a religious nature, which included the People's Crusade, the Noble Crusade, the Germanic Crusade, and the 1101 Crusade.
The First Crusade was a milestone in the mindset and relationships of Western Christians, Eastern Christians, and Muslims. Although their achievements were eventually completely lost, it was also the beginning of Western expansion that, together with the Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula, would result in the adventure of discovery and Western imperialism.
In 1095, in the city of Clermont, during a council, Urban II delivered a speech calling on Catholic kings and princes to join forces against the presence of the infidels, the Muslims, in the city of Jerusalem. Adhering to the support of the European nobles, the First Crusade left in 1096.
Using red crosses, which indicated the religious motivation of the conflict, the First Crusade participants began their battle by besieging various cities until they reached their final destination.
Counting on serious difficulties in continuing the journey, the Crusaders experienced numerous deprivations. Some even drank their own urine and blood due to lack of clean water.
In 1097 a contingent of 10,000 people were in Constantinople, ready to advance to Jerusalem. Divided into small armies, the Crusaders conquered the cities of Nicaea and Antioch. Shortly thereafter, the armies advanced on Jerusalem and provoked a great massacre against the Muslims who lived there. After the conquest, Godfred of Bulhão was elected head of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. After his death in 1100, he was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Bologna.