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President Bush unveils strategy for homeland security

President Bush unveils strategy for homeland security


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On July 16, 2002, President George W. Bush announces his plan for strengthening homeland security in the wake of the shocking September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., in which nearly 3,000 people had been killed. In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, in an attempt to prevent further bloodshed on American soil, Bush launched a massive overhaul of the nation’s security, intelligence and emergency-response systems through the creation of the White House Office of Homeland Security. It was part of a two-pronged effort, which included pre-emptive military action against terrorists in other countries, to fight the war on terror.

During a White House press conference that day, Bush gave the American public a preview of the changes to come, including, but not limited to, a color-coded warning system that identified different levels of threat, assessing which industries and regions were vulnerable to attack. He also proposed changes in laws that would give the president increased executive powers, particularly with regard to anti-terrorism policy.

On the day of his announcement, it appeared that Bush and Congress formed a fairly united front in favor of the new policy. However, as soon as the Department of Homeland Security was established, critics who feared the potential abuse of presidential powers and the abandonment of civil liberties in the name of national security raised their voices. Bush tried to reassure them that the changes were constitutional and open to Congressional oversight. However, over the next few years, his administration faced accusations of violating the Constitution and creating a political culture of secrecy and cronyism.

READ MORE: The War on Terror


National Strategy for Pandemic Flu

The Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Office was established in December 2017 by consolidating primarily the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, a majority of the Office of Health Affairs, as well as other DHS elements.

For current information related to CWMD, please visit the following:

The National Strategy To Safeguard Against The Danger Of Pandemic Influenza (White House) outlines the coordinated federal government efforts to prevent and prepare for avian and pandemic flu. President Bush directed all relevant federal departments and agencies to take steps to address the threat of avian and pandemic flu. Drawing on the combined efforts of government officials and the public health, medical, veterinary, and law enforcement communities, as well as the private sector, this strategy is designed to meet three critical goals:

  1. detecting human or animal outbreaks that occur anywhere in the world
  2. protecting the American people by stockpiling vaccines and antiviral drugs while improving the capacity to produce new vaccines and
  3. preparing to respond at the federal, state, and local levels in the event an avian or pandemic influenza reaches the United States.

Bush outlines homeland security strategy

WASHINGTON (CNN) -- President Bush on Tuesday unveiled a national strategy for homeland security that includes proposed standards for state driver's licenses and new technology to detect chemical, biological and nuclear weapons.

Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge called the plan "the best way to protect America."

"We've engaged the law enforcement community around this country, but there are also certain things we can do within this country outside of law enforcement that would be a deterrent to an attack," Ridge said. "The president's strategy gives us a road map to accomplish that."

The plan lists various domestic terrorist threats and ways to prevent, pre-empt or respond to them. Its report notes the need to be prepared and flexible as enemies "strategically adapt their offensive tactics to exploit what they see to be the weakness in our defenses."

The Bush administration's proposal outlines budgetary needs, the planned overhaul of the FBI, the need to shore up security of U.S. infrastructure and provisions for protecting U.S. borders and ensuring preparedness for a response to a national catastrophe.

One proposal would encourage states to set minimum standards for driver's licenses, such as the number of years before a license would need to be renewed.

Other ideas include developing new technology to create better sensors for detecting weapons of mass destruction.

A senior Bush administration official said the report is not an "action plan" but an "overarching guidance directive" on how federal, state and local governments can better protect the country.

Other parts of the strategy include:

The three objectives of the new strategy include preventing domestic terrorist attacks, reducing the country's vulnerability to terrorism and minimizing the damage from attacks if they occur, according to the report's executive summary.

"Terrorists are strategic actors," Ridge told a House panel on homeland security. "They choose their targets deliberately, and they choose them based on the weaknesses they observe in our defenses and in our preparations. They use speed and surprise to terrorize."

Ridge added, "Protecting ourselves, therefore, requires that we be flexible and nimble as well, with the ability to quickly spot the gaps and move just as quickly to fill them. It requires improved coordination and communication between all levels of government in every sector of society.

"And it requires something else: a thorough knowledge of our enduring vulnerabilities."


Bush administration unveils 2002 pay increases

President Bush has issued an executive order outlining base and locality pay raises for General Schedule employees and members of the Senior Executive Service.

In the 2002 Treasury-Postal spending bill, Congress directed President Bush to give employees an average 4.6 percent pay raise. The administration decided to divide the raise between a 3.6 percent base pay increase for all employees and an average 1 percent locality pay adjustment that varies according to where employees work.

Employees in the San Francisco area will receive the largest total pay hike, 5.42 percent. Other metropolitan areas that will receive increases of more than 5 percent are Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles and New York.

Employees in the Washington, D.C., area will receive a 4.77 percent increase. Employees in other cities will get a raise of at least 4.52 percent.

Locality-based raises became a fixture of federal pay in 1994, following implementation of the 1990 Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act. The act's proponents identified a gap between public and private sector salaries of about 30 percent. The act was designed to close the gap to about 5 percent, but raises under the law have never been fully funded.

Below are 2002 percentage salary increases by locality. For full 2002 pay tables, click here.

2002 Percentage Pay Raises, By Locality

Atlanta 4.63%
Boston 4.93%
Chicago 5.05%
Cincinnati 4.84%
Cleveland 4.70%
Columbus 4.63%
Dallas/Ft. Worth 4.72%
Dayton, Ohio 4.57%
Denver 4.93%
Detroit 5.04%
Hartford 4.94%
Houston 5.33%
Huntsville, Ala. 4.52%
Indianapolis 4.52%
Kansas City 4.52%
Los Angeles 5.12%
Miami 4.87%
Milwaukee 4.68%
Minneapolis/St. Paul 4.78%
New York 5.07%
Orlando 4.52%
Philadelphia 4.82%
Pittsburgh 4.54%
Portland 4.84%
Richmond 4.62%
Sacramento 4.78%
St. Louis 4.54%
San Diego 4.89%
San Francisco 5.42%
Seattle 4.84%
Washington, D.C. 4.77%

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September 2, 1789

11th Act of the First Congress of the United States establishes the DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Secretary of the Treasury is responsible for the management of all matters pertaining to the collection and protection of U.S. revenue.



Bush: New agency to secure 'American homeland'

Good evening. During the next few minutes, I want to update you on the progress we are making in our war against terror, and to propose sweeping changes that will strengthen our homeland against the ongoing threat of terrorist attacks.

Nearly nine months have passed since the day that forever changed our country. Debris from what was once the World Trade Center has been cleared away in 100,000 truckloads. The west side of the Pentagon looks almost as it did on September 10. And as children finish school and families prepare for summer vacations, for many life seems almost normal.

Yet we are a different nation today: sadder and stronger, less innocent and more courageous, more appreciative of life -- and for many who serve our country, more willing to risk life in a great cause. For those who have lost family and friends, the pain will never go away -- and neither will the responsibilities that day thrust upon all of us.

America is leading the civilized world in a titanic struggle against terror. Freedom and fear are at war -- and freedom is winning.

Tonight, over 60,000 American troops are deployed around the world in the war against terror -- more than 7,000 in Afghanistan, others in the Philippines, Yemen, and the Republic of Georgia, to train local forces.

Next week Afghanistan will begin selecting a representative government, even as American troops, along with our allies, still continuously raid remote al Qaeda hiding places. Among those we have captured is a man named Abu Zubaydah, al Qaeda's chief of operations. From him, and from hundreds of others, we are learning more about how the terrorists plan and operate -- information crucial in anticipating and preventing future attacks.

Our coalition is strong. More than 90 nations have arrested or detained over 2,400 terrorists and their supporters. More than 180 countries have offered or are providing assistance in the war on terrorism. And our military is strong and prepared to oppose any emerging threat to the American people.

Every day in this war will not bring the drama of liberating a country. Yet every day brings new information, a tip or arrest, another step or two or three in a relentless march to bring security to our nation and justice to our enemies.

And every day I review a document called the Threat Assessment. It summarizes what our intelligence services and key law enforcement agencies have picked up about terrorist activity. Sometimes the information is very general -- vague talk, bragging about future attacks. Sometimes the information is more specific, as in a recent case when an al Qaeda detainee said attacks were planned against financial institutions.

When credible intelligence warrants, appropriate law enforcement and local officials are alerted. These warnings are unfortunately a new reality in American life -- and we have recently seen an increase in the volume of general threats. Americans should continue to do what you are doing -- go about your lives, but pay attention to your surroundings -- add your eyes and ears to the protection of our homeland.

In protecting our country, we depend on the skill of our people: the troops we send to battle -- intelligence operatives who risk their lives for bits of information -- law enforcement officers who sift for clues and search for suspects. We are now learning that before September 11, the suspicions and insights of some of our frontline agents did not get enough attention.

My Administration supports the important work of the intelligence committees in Congress to review the activities of law enforcement and intelligence agencies. We need to know when warnings were missed or signs unheeded -- not to point the finger of blame, but to make sure we correct any problems, and prevent them from happening again. Based on everything I have seen, I do not believe anyone could have prevented the horror of September 11 -- yet we now know that thousands of trained killers are plotting to attack us, and this terrible knowledge requires us to act differently.

If you are a frontline worker for the FBI, the CIA, some other law enforcement or intelligence agency, and you see something that raises suspicions: I want you to report it immediately. I expect your supervisors to treat it with the seriousness it deserves. Information must be fully shared, so we can follow every lead to find the one that may prevent tragedy. I applaud the leaders and employees at the FBI and CIA for beginning essential reforms. They must continue to think and act differently to defeat the enemy.

The first and best way to secure America's homeland is to attack the enemy where he hides and plans -- and we are doing just that. We are also taking significant steps to strengthen our homeland protections -- securing cockpits, tightening our borders, stockpiling vaccines, increasing security at water-treatment and nuclear power plants. After September 11, we needed to move quickly, and so I appointed Tom Ridge as my homeland security adviser.

As Governor Ridge has worked with all levels of government -- to prepare a national strategy -- and as we have learned more about the plans and capabilities of the terrorist network -- we have concluded that our government must be reorganized to deal most effectively with the new threats of the 21st century. So tonight, I ask the Congress to join me in creating a single permanent department with an overriding and urgent mission: securing the American homeland and protecting the American people.

Right now, as many as a hundred different government agencies have some responsibilities for homeland security. And no one has final accountability. The Coast Guard has several missions, from search and rescue to maritime treaty enforcement. It reports to the Transportation Department, whose primary responsibilities are roads, rails, bridges and the airways. The Customs Service, among other duties, collects tariffs and prevents smuggling -- and it is part of the Treasury Department, whose primary responsibility is fiscal policy, not security.

Tonight, I propose a permanent Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security to unite essential agencies that must work more closely together: among them the Coast Guard, the Border Patrol, the Customs Service, immigration officials, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Employees of this new agency will come to work every morning knowing their most important job is to protect their fellow citizens.

The Department of Homeland Security will be charged with four primary tasks. This new agency will control our borders and prevent terrorists and explosives from entering our country. It will work with state and local authorities to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. It will bring together our best scientists to develop technologies that detect biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons -- and to discover the drugs and treatments to best protect our citizens. And this new department will review intelligence and law enforcement information from all agencies of government, and produce a single daily picture of threats against our homeland. Analysts will be responsible for imagining the worst -- and planning to counter it.

The reason to create this department is not to increase the size of government, but to increase its focus and effectiveness. The staff of this new department will be largely drawn from the agencies we are combining. By ending duplication and overlap, we will spend less on overhead, and more on protecting America. This reorganization will give the good people of our government their best opportunity to succeed, by organizing our resources in a way that is thorough and unified.

What I am proposing tonight is the most extensive reorganization of the federal government since the 1940s. During his presidency, Harry Truman recognized that our nation's fragmented defenses had to be reorganized to win the Cold War. He proposed uniting our military forces under a single Department of Defense and creating the National Security Council to bring together defense, intelligence and diplomacy. Truman's reforms are still helping us to fight terror abroad -- and now we need similar dramatic reforms to secure our people at home.

Only the United States Congress can create a new department of government. So tonight I ask for your help in encouraging your representatives to support my plan. We face an urgent need, and we must move quickly, this year, before the end of the congressional session.

All in our government have learned a great deal since September 11, and we must act on every lesson. We are stronger and better prepared tonight than we were on that terrible morning -- and with your help, and the support of Congress, we will be stronger still.

History has called our nation into action. History has placed a great challenge before us: Will America -- with our unique position and power -- blink in the face of terror, or will we lead to a freer, more civilized world?

There is only one answer: this great country will lead the world to safety, security, peace, and freedom.


Bush unveils strategy for homeland security - Jul 16, 2002 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

On this day in 2002, President George W. Bush announces his plan for strengthening homeland security in the wake of the shocking September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., in which nearly 3,000 people had been killed. In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, in an attempt to prevent further bloodshed on American soil, Bush launched a massive overhaul of the nation’s security, intelligence and emergency-response systems through the creation of the White House Office of Homeland Security. Later in the month, the Department of Homeland Security was established as a federal agency. It was part of a two-pronged effort, which included pre-emptive military action against terrorists in other countries, to fight the war on terror.

During a White House press conference that day, Bush gave the American public a preview of the changes to come, including, but not limited to, a color-coded warning system that identified different levels of threat, assessing which industries and regions were vulnerable to attack. He also proposed changes in laws that would give the president increased executive powers, particularly with regard to anti-terrorism policy.

On the day of his announcement, it appeared that Bush and Congress formed a fairly united front in favor of the new policy. However, as soon as the Department of Homeland Security was established, critics who feared the potential abuse of presidential powers and the abandonment of civil liberties in the name of national security raised their voices. Bush tried to reassure them that the changes were constitutional and open to Congressional oversight. However, over the next few years, his administration faced accusations of flagrantly violating the Constitution and creating a political culture of secrecy and cronyism.


Contents

The list is subjective and imprecise, since frequently individuals or offices might be referred to by the nickname "czar" by some publication or a political opponent, yet the actual governmental official, a majority of publications and others do not use the term. One possible definition is only those officials who are appointed by the president without Senate confirmation.

Summary table - Number of czars per administration
President's name Party In office Number of
czar titles
Number of
appointees
Appointees not
confirmed by Senate
Franklin Roosevelt D 1933–1945 11 19 18
Harry Truman 1945–1953 6 5
Dwight Eisenhower R 1953–1961 1 0
Lyndon Johnson D 1963–1969 3 1
Richard Nixon R 1969–1974 3 5
Gerald Ford 1974–1977 2
Jimmy Carter D 1977–1981 2 3 2
Ronald Reagan R 1981–1989 1
George H. W. Bush 1989–1993 2 3 0
Bill Clinton D 1993–2001 8 11 7
George W. Bush R 2001–2009 33 49 28
Barack Obama D 2009–2017 38 50 39
Donald Trump R 2017-2021 2 TBD [ needs update ] 42 TBD [ needs update ] 40

The numbers are based upon the sortable list below. Please see it for details and references. Note that what is measured is the popularity of the word czar, rather than an objective measure of authority.

Also note that under George W. Bush only 33 Czar titles had been currently found, thus only 33 Czars, although many of these titles were used by several distinct individuals. For example, there has been an Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health since the passage of the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, but the phrase "mine safety czar" was only applied to the position since the controversial appointment of Richard Stickler to the post in 2006. Similarly, there has been a director of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs since the office was created by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, but the term "regulatory czar" was not applied to the post until 2001.

The following are executive branch officials who have been described by the media as a czar of some kind.


Bush Unveils $2.13 Trillion Budget

WASHINGTON, Feb. 4 — President Bush sent Congress a $2.13 trillion budget today that he said would enable the United States to win a war and reinvigorate the economy. But Democrats say the Bush plan would weaken the country's financial foundation and cut from essential programs.

"The budget for 2003 is much more than a tabulation of numbers," the president said in a message accompanying the documents. "It is a plan to fight a war we did not seek — but a war we are determined to win."

Mr. Bush said the country's first priority, reflected in his budget, "must be the security of our homeland." Accordingly, he has called for the biggest increase in military spending since early in the presidency of Ronald Reagan, when the Soviet Union, the Berlin War and the cold war were facts of life.

"We have priorities at home as well," Mr. Bush said, "restoring health to our economy above all."

The president called for a 3.7 percent increase over this year's budget, including a $48 billion rise in military spending and a doubling in expenditures for homeland security, to $38 billion. Scattered throughout the budget are cuts as well, including some for various enforcement and regulatory functions.

Details can be viewed at www.whitehouse.gov/omb/.

Every budget offered by a president, Republican or Democrat, is important more as a statement of political and social priorities than as a spending plan that will survive until the beginning of the next fiscal year, on Oct. 1. The initial budget offering gives the administration and its friends and foes on Capitol Hill something to argue and negotiate over for many months.

The budget document — actually, several documents, with the thickness and heft of metropolitan telephone directories — is full of language that Mr. Bush said "advances a bipartisan economic recovery plan," keeps taxes low, promotes prosperity.

"Where government programs are succeeding, their efforts should be reinforced — and the 2003 budget provides resources to do that," Mr. Bush said. "And when objective measures reveal that government programs are not succeeding, those programs should be reinvented, redirected, or retired."

That theme is a familiar Republican one. Democrats have already responded angrily as outlines of the budget proposal have become known in recent weeks, and Senator Kent Conrad of North Dakota, the chairman of the Senate Budget Committee, reiterated his party's objections today.

"Enron got into trouble because they didn't fully disclose debt they have, and that is precisely what the federal government is doing," he told The Associated Press, contending that the White House wants to spackle over money shortages by dipping into Social Security and Medicare surpluses.

Democrats have been criticizing Mr. Bush and his Capitol Hill Republican allies for months for sticking to their $1.35 trillion, decade-long tax-cutting plan even as war and recession have shrunk the government's projected long-range surplus.

The urgency that Mr. Bush sees in winning a war and jump-starting the economy reflect how much things have changed in a relatively short time, most strikingly since Sept. 11, when terrorist attacks dealt a severe blow to an economy that was already mired in recession.

Mr. Bush said the "murderous events" of September were what Pearl Harbor was to an earlier generation: "a terrible wrong and a call to action."

He repeated those themes at mid-day, speaking to a friendly audience of military people at Eglin Air Force Base in the Florida Panhandle. The president paid tribute to the men and women in uniform, declaring that in routing the Taliban from Afghanistan they had given the people of that country "a chance to breathe the fresh air of freedom."

The president drew cheers as he reminded his listeners that his budget contains a pay raise for them.

"History has called us to action, and we will not stop until the threat of global terrorism has been destroyed," Mr. Bush said, to more cheers.

Since Sept. 11, the president has been applauded by Republicans, Democrats and people of no particular political loyalties when he has spoken like that.

As far as the budget goes, the "call to action" now sounds on Capitol Hill, where skirmishing, infighting and negotiations will go on for many months, some of it openly and some behind the scenes. Only after all that will the "real" 2003 budget emerge.


Transcript

Good evening. During the next few minutes, I want to update you on the progress we are making in our war against terror, and to propose sweeping changes that will strengthen our homeland against the ongoing threat of terrorist attacks.

Nearly nine months have passed since the day that forever changed our country. Debris from what was once the World Trade Center has been cleared away in a hundred thousand truckloads. The west side of the Pentagon looks almost as it did on September the 10th. And as children finish school and families prepare for summer vacations, for many, life seems almost normal.

Yet we are a different nation today -- sadder and stronger, less innocent and more courageous, more appreciative of life, and for many who serve our country, more willing to risk life in a great cause. For those who have lost family and friends, the pain will never go away -- and neither will the responsibilities that day thrust upon all of us. America is leading the civilized world in a titanic struggle against terror. Freedom and fear are at war -- and freedom is winning.

Tonight over 60,000 American troops are deployed around the world in the war against terror -- more than 7,000 in Afghanistan others in the Philippines, Yemen, and the Republic of Georgia, to train local forces. Next week Afghanistan will begin selecting a representative government, even as American troops, along with our allies, still continuously raid remote al Qaeda hiding places.

Among those we have captured is a man named Abu Zabedah, al Qaeda's chief of operations. From him, and from hundreds of others, we are learning more about how the terrorists plan and operate information crucial in anticipating and preventing future attacks.

Our coalition is strong. More than 90 nations have arrested or detained over 2,400 terrorists and their supporters. More than 180 countries have offered or are providing assistance in the war on terrorism. And our military is strong and prepared to oppose any emerging threat to the American people.

Every day in this war will not bring the drama of liberating a country. Yet every day brings new information, a tip or arrest, another step, or two, or three in a relentless march to bring security to our nation and justice to our enemies.

Every day I review a document called the threat assessment. It summarizes what our intelligence services and key law enforcement agencies have picked up about terrorist activity. Sometimes the information is very general -- vague talk, bragging about future attacks. Sometimes the information is more specific, as in a recent case when an al Qaeda detainee said attacks were planned against financial institutions.

When credible intelligence warrants, appropriate law enforcement and local officials are alerted. These warnings are, unfortunately, a new reality in American life -- and we have recently seen an increase in the volume of general threats. Americans should continue to do what you're doing -- go about your lives, but pay attention to your surroundings. Add your eyes and ears to the protection of our homeland.

In protecting our country, we depend on the skill of our people -- the troops we send to battle, intelligence operatives who risk their lives for bits of information, law enforcement officers who sift for clues and search for suspects. We are now learning that before September the 11th, the suspicions and insights of some of our front-line agents did not get enough attention.

My administration supports the important work of the intelligence committees in Congress to review the activities of law enforcement and intelligence agencies. We need to know when warnings were missed or signs unheeded -- not to point the finger of blame, but to make sure we correct any problems, and prevent them from happening again.

Based on everything I've seen, I do not believe anyone could have prevented the horror of September the 11th. Yet we now know that thousands of trained killers are plotting to attack us, and this terrible knowledge requires us to act differently.

If you're a front-line worker for the FBI, the CIA, some other law enforcement or intelligence agency, and you see something that raises suspicions, I want you to report it immediately. I expect your supervisors to treat it with the seriousness it deserves. Information must be fully shared, so we can follow every lead to find the one that may prevent tragedy.

I applaud the leaders and employees at the FBI and CIA for beginning essential reforms. They must continue to think and act differently to defeat the enemy.

The first and best way to secure America's homeland is to attack the enemy where he hides and plans, and we're doing just that. We're also taking significant steps to strengthen our homeland protections -- securing cockpits, tightening our borders, stockpiling vaccines, increasing security at water treatment and nuclear power plants.

After September the 11th, we needed to move quickly, and so I appointed Tom Ridge as my Homeland Security Advisor. As Governor Ridge has worked with all levels of government to prepare a national strategy, and as we have learned more about the plans and capabilities of the terrorist network, we have concluded that our government must be reorganized to deal more effectively with the new threats of the 21st century. So tonight, I ask the Congress to join me in creating a single, permanent department with an overriding and urgent mission: securing the homeland of America, and protecting the American people.

Right now, as many as a hundred different government agencies have some responsibilities for homeland security, and no one has final accountability. For example, the Coast Guard has several missions, from search and rescue to maritime treaty enforcement. It reports to the Transportation Department, whose primary responsibilities are roads, rails, bridges and the airways. The Customs Service, among other duties, collects tariffs and prevents smuggling -- and it is part of the Treasury Department, whose primary responsibility is fiscal policy, not security.

Tonight, I propose a permanent Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security to unite essential agencies that must work more closely together: Among them, the Coast Guard, the Border Patrol, the Customs Service, Immigration officials, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Employees of this new agency will come to work every morning knowing their most important job is to protect their fellow citizens. The Department of Homeland Security will be charged with --

The Department of Homeland Security will be charged with four primary tasks. This new agency will control our borders and prevent terrorists and explosives from entering our country. It will work with state and local authorities to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. It will bring together our best scientists to develop technologies that detect biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, and to discover the drugs and treatments to best protect our citizens. And this new department will review intelligence and law enforcement information from all agencies of government, and produce a single daily picture of threats against our homeland. Analysts will be responsible for imagining the worst, and planning to counter it.

The reason to create this department is not to create the size of government, but to increase its focus and effectiveness. The staff of this new department will be largely drawn from the agencies we are combining. By ending duplication and overlap, we will spend less on overhead, and more on protecting America. This reorganization will give the good people of our government their best opportunity to succeed by organizing our resources in a way that is thorough and unified.

What I am proposing tonight is the most extensive reorganization of the federal government since the 1940s. During his presidency, Harry Truman recognized that our nation's fragmented defenses had to be reorganized to win the Cold War. He proposed uniting our military forces under a single Department of Defense, and creating the National Security Council to bring together defense, intelligence, and diplomacy. Truman's reforms are still helping us to fight terror abroad, and now we need similar dramatic reforms to secure our people at home.

Only the United States Congress can create a new department of government. So tonight, I ask for your help in encouraging your representatives to support my plan. We face an urgent need, and we must move quickly, this year, before the end of the congressional session. All in our government have learned a great deal since September the 11th, and we must act on every lesson. We are stronger and better prepared tonight than we were on that terrible morning -- and with your help, and the support of Congress, we will be stronger still.

History has called our nation into action. History has placed a great challenge before us: Will America -- with our unique position and power -- blink in the face of terror, or will we lead to a freer, more civilized world? There's only one answer: This great country will lead the world to safety, security, peace and freedom.


March 1, 2003: CBP is Born

President George W. Bush proposed on June 6, 2002 the creation of the Department of Homeland Security to unite agencies charged with protecting the homeland. He outlined four essential missions that corresponded to the four proposed divisions in the department:

  • Border and Transportation Security to control the borders and prevent terrorists and explosives from entering the country.
  • Emergency Preparedness and Response to work with state and local authorities to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies.
  • Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Countermeasures to bring together the country’s best scientists to develop technologies that detect biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons to best protect citizens.
  • Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection to review intelligence and law enforcement information from all agencies of government, and produce a single daily picture of threats against the homeland.

On June 18, 2002, President Bush formally submitted his proposal to Congress, including his proposed text for the Homeland Security Act of 2002. Six days later, Rep. Richard Armey introduced the president’s proposed legislation to the House of Representatives as H.R. 5005. After amendments in committee, the bill passed the House on July 26, 2002. The Senate passed the bill with amendments on November 19, 2002, and the president signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002 into law on November 25, 2002.

On the same day he signed the bill into law, President Bush submitted a plan to Congress that outlined the time frame for the organization of the new department. The plan established March 1, 2003, as the date on which the majority of the previously existing agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Transportation Security Administration, the Coast Guard, the Customs Service, and the Secret Service would be transferred to the new department. On March 1, 2003, CBP was formed, and for the first time, border security responsibilities were placed together.