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Richland II YFD-64 - History

Richland II YFD-64 - History


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Richland II

(YFD-64: dp. 8,000, 1. 622'; b. 124'; dr. 6'; a. 2 40mm.,4 20mm.)

The second Richland (AFDM-8) was built by the Chicago Building & Iron Co., Eureka, Calif., and commissioned as YFD - 4 on 28 November 1944.

DryDock YFD - 4 remained on the west coast until 15 December 1944 when she was towed to Pearl Harbor. On 25 January 1945 she was towed into Eniwetok and then on to Ulithi. She was next towed to San Pedro Bay where she worked until November when she was towed to Guam. Elhe decommissioned there on 8 June 1946.

YFD - 4 was redesignated AFDM-8 on 1 August 1946 placed in service 1 January 1947, and remained at Guam into 1949. Since then she has spent her entire career in the Pacific.

From 1964 and continuing into 1974, she has been utilized extensively in support of Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines in the western Pacific. She was named Richland 6 April 1968.


WW2-era drydock moving from Guam to Philippines

Jan 30, 2016 #1 2016-01-30T03:07

I don't think this is the same drydock featured on many Navsource archive photos where you see battlewagons like the Pennsylvania or Iowa high and dry.

Please also note the current rotation of USN forces through the Philippines as part of the EDCA new bases agreement mentioned in this other thread.

WWII-era drydock moving from Guam to Philippines
Stars and Stripes
Published: January 28, 2016

A massive and dilapidated floating drydock used in the Pacific since World War II is moving to the Philippines after spending nearly half a century at Naval Base Guam.

Several local tugboats and the 467-ton Philippine tug Rhocas guided Richland out of Apra Harbor Wednesday in preparation for an open-ocean tow to the Philippines that will take several days. The Rhocas began that tow on Thursday.

“I’ve been working on this drydock since I was 18 — in the 1970s and ‘80s,” Paul Yatar, a crane operator with Guam Shipyard, said in a Navy statement. “I worked on her while she was an active drydock, but it has reached its lifecycle, and it’s a good thing to see it go after all this time.”

It’s unclear what will happen to the drydock, which has a deep basin that can be flooded so ships can be floated in and repaired after the water is drained, once it arrives in the Philippines.

Richland — more than two football fields long, 124 feet wide and 57 feet high — was built in 1943 by Chicago Building & Iron Co., of Eureka, Calif., and put into commission the following year, the Navy said. It was first towed to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, then to Eniwetok and Ulithi atolls before making its way to San Pedro Bay, Philippines, to be used with U.S. and Allied ships near the end of World War II.

It was reclassified as a medium auxiliary floating drydock in 1946 and renamed Richland in 1968 when it arrived at Apra Harbor while the Vietnam War was in high gear and Guam served as a major jumping-off point for ships and aircraft.

The piers at the base have undergone major renovations the past few years, improvements that have left no room for the antiquated drydock, Capt. Alfred “Andy” Anderson, the base’s commanding officer, said last fall.

Jan 30, 2016 #2 2016-01-30T19:35

Shang Ma Ke wrote: I don't think this is the same drydock featured on many Navsource archive photos where you see battlewagons like the Pennsylvania or Iowa high and dry.

Please also note the current rotation of USN forces through the Philippines as part of the EDCA new bases agreement mentioned in this other thread.

WWII-era drydock moving from Guam to Philippines
Stars and Stripes
Published: January 28, 2016

A massive and dilapidated floating drydock used in the Pacific since World War II is moving to the Philippines after spending nearly half a century at Naval Base Guam.

Several local tugboats and the 467-ton Philippine tug Rhocas guided Richland out of Apra Harbor Wednesday in preparation for an open-ocean tow to the Philippines that will take several days. The Rhocas began that tow on Thursday.

“I’ve been working on this drydock since I was 18 — in the 1970s and ‘80s,” Paul Yatar, a crane operator with Guam Shipyard, said in a Navy statement. “I worked on her while she was an active drydock, but it has reached its lifecycle, and it’s a good thing to see it go after all this time.”

It’s unclear what will happen to the drydock, which has a deep basin that can be flooded so ships can be floated in and repaired after the water is drained, once it arrives in the Philippines.

Richland — more than two football fields long, 124 feet wide and 57 feet high — was built in 1943 by Chicago Building & Iron Co., of Eureka, Calif., and put into commission the following year, the Navy said. It was first towed to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, then to Eniwetok and Ulithi atolls before making its way to San Pedro Bay, Philippines, to be used with U.S. and Allied ships near the end of World War II.

It was reclassified as a medium auxiliary floating drydock in 1946 and renamed Richland in 1968 when it arrived at Apra Harbor while the Vietnam War was in high gear and Guam served as a major jumping-off point for ships and aircraft.

The piers at the base have undergone major renovations the past few years, improvements that have left no room for the antiquated drydock, Capt. Alfred “Andy” Anderson, the base’s commanding officer, said last fall.

I found this about her WWII service she was originally YFD-64.


Drydock YFD-64 remained on the west coast until 15 December 1944 when she was towed to Pearl Harbor. On 25 January 1945 she was towed into Eniwetok and then on to Ulithi. She was next towed to San Pedro Bay where she worked until November when she was towed to Guam. She decommissioned there on 8 June 1946.


HistoryLink.org

Before white settlers came to the area now known as Franklin County, the arid land was an oasis of bunch grass and sagebrush. Through this dry land flowed the Columbia and Snake rivers, where the region’s Native Americans fished for salmon. These peoples likely traded with Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1805 when they arrived at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers. A few years later, David Thompson, of the North West Company, arrived here and claimed the land for Great Britain.

For several more decades the tribes continued to hunt and fish just as they always had. Occasionally miners or fur traders traveled into the area, but none stayed. They were just on their way to someplace else. After the end of the Indian Wars of the 1850s, settlers felt it was safe to move into the Columbia Basin. Cattle ranchers began using the northern part of modern-day Franklin County where lush bunchgrass grew. A few settlers clustered around Ringgold Bar, where Chinese panned for gold and Yakama Indians camped. Peach orchards flourished in this area.

Railroad Town

Not until 1879 did travelers began settling near the site of modern-day Pasco. Settlement began with the Northern Pacific Railroad. Engineers opened a construction center at the mouth of the Snake River on the north bank. The railroad called this settlement Ainsworth after J. C. Ainsworth, president of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company.

As the railroad built its line across the county, it established new stations. Each of these stops would eventually support small communities. The closest station to Ainsworth would be Eltopia, established in 1881 approximately 15 miles to the north. Next in line was Lake, later renamed Mesa, established in 1883. Later that same year, Palouse Junction, later named Connell after a railroad official, opened.

A County and its Towns

In November 1883, the territorial legislature created Franklin County from the western portion of Whitman County, and named it for Ben Franklin. The legislature awarded the county seat to Ainsworth, the largest population center at the time. Ainsworth averaged between 400 and 500 people, with a maximum of about 1,500 during its heyday. Nearly half the population consisted of Chinese laborers, who frequently worked for the railroads. They also operated many of businesses in town including laundries and stores, as well as opium dens to complement saloons and brothels.

Ainsworth would be short-lived. The railroad built a bridge across the Snake River in 1884 and moved its base across the river to a new town named Pasco. The name was chosen by engineer V. C. Bogue, whose last engineering job had been in the Andes Mountains of South America at Cerro de Pasco. The new location reminded him of the dry, dusty Andean country, and so he named the new railroad town after it. The company built housing for its employees along “A” street. The Chinese moved into the new town and created their own district. When railroad construction was completed, most of them left, in part due to persistent persecution by non-Chinese.

Crossing the Columbia

Ferry service between the new Pasco and Kennewick on the south shore of the Columbia began in November 1884. The ferry operated until December 1887, when the first railroad bridge was completed between the two towns. Land developers began to promote Pasco and its benefits, mainly cheap land. Settlers arrived to try their hand at farming and other small businesses. In 1891, a majority decided to incorporate the town of Pasco. W. P. Gray and Louis C. Grey formed the Pasco Land Company to promote the new community.

In 1890, the Northern Pacific had discontinued service to Connell, seeming to assure the death of the town before it even got going. Fortunately, the Union Pacific reestablished rail service in 1901, at which time Connell was incorporated. Shortly afterward, F. D. Mottet established the first bank there. Other businesses followed and for a time, Connell grew faster than Pasco. A devastating fire in 1905 demolished Connell's business district, setting back the town for a few years.

On the far eastern border of the county, in 1901,a new settlement called Hardersburg was platted. The town’s namesake, Jon Harder, arrived in the area in the 1890s. The town would later be renamed Kahlotus, an Indian word that means “hole in the ground.” Early settlers raised wheat near a spring-fed lake first called Washtucna Lake, later renamed Kahlotus Lake. In 1902, there was enough growth that a town site was platted by Joseph McCabe to form the new town of Eltopia, north of Pasco.

Farm Country

Growth was fairly slow though until another rail line reached Pasco in 1904. The Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railroad went through Pasco from Spokane, crossed the Columbia, then followed the river’s north bank all the way down to Vancouver, Washington. One of the first crops sent to customers by rail was wheat. By 1905, more than one million bushels were being sold. Alfalfa, hay, potatoes, and sugar beets were also grown in the area.

Many farmers raised sheep both for mutton and for wool. The sheep were grazed in the Blue Mountains to the southeast in the summer, and fattened up on wheat stubble in Franklin County over the winter. The Merino and Rambouillet breeds were the most profitable. Before the railroad came, markets for the sheep were limited now larger herds could be managed for larger markets back east.

Necessities and Amenities

Over the next decades, Pasco showed signs of permanency. The city received funds from the Andrew Carnegie Foundation and erected its first library in 1911. In 1912, city officials had a brand new city hall and new courthouse for conducting city business. As soon as that project was completed, crews laid new sidewalks and expanded the sewer system. The first hospital was opened in 1916 in a converted hotel. Roman Catholic nuns from Lewiston, Idaho, arrived to operate the hospital, which was called Our Lady of Lourdes.

Until 1922, residents could cross the Columbia only via ferry. In 1894, the Timmerman ferry started to take passengers, animals, and wagons from west Pasco to Richland on the west bank of the river. There were other ferries at White Bluffs, farther north, and at Burbank, on the south bank of the Snake River. In 1922, the original “green bridge” was erected to accommodate automobile traffic across the river. Another improvement in transportation came in 1926, when an airport opened in Pasco. At first, aircraft flew only mail, but later took on passengers as well. The Pasco airport would later serve as the main airport for the Tri-Cities, though both Richland and Kennewick in Benton County built small municipal airports.

Then came the years of the Great Depression. The railroad and its workers were most affected. Companies could not afford to ship what people could not afford to buy. There was very little recreational travel and low freight, which resulted in many lost jobs. There were an increased number of transients -- called hobos -- on the trains that did come in. Begging increased at homes and businesses, and most families gave what they could.

Pasco received federal money for transient quarters for the increasing numbers of men out of work. Despite the Depression, Connell was able to establish a grain co-op as well as a public utility district, both of which were of great help in weathering hard times.

In the early 1940s, the Port of Pasco was created on the north shore of the Columbia River. The port was dedicated on October 29, 1941. River traffic increased when goods began being shipped up and down river. The business also helped put people back to work. Originally, grain shipments were the biggest source of revenue. Over the years, petroleum handling and storage contributed to the economy.

During World War II, Pasco saw considerable expansion. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation in neighboring Benton County required huge numbers of construction employees as well as long-term employees. Most of these people arrived through the railroad depot in Pasco and chose Pasco for their residences. The city expanded its services to provide for them. In addition, the government chose Pasco for a naval air station, completed in 1942. The Navy trained thousands of men at this airfield, which operated until 1946.

After the war, the city took over the naval air station and used it for regular airline service. The school district had grown to the point that it leased several of the air station buildings. The first vocational school, the future Columbia Basin College, held its first classes at the old air station.

Columbia Basin Irrigation Project

The completion of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project in 1948 ensured continued growth in agricultural products and livestock. Wheat and other crops had done well before, but with a reliable source of water the land could produce more. Pasco's water had come from the Columbia River, but other communities had relied on the railroad well at Mesa or on personal wells. The Pasco Reclamation Company and several others had failed in their efforts to bring reliable irrigation to the area.

Finally the federal government created the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project. The project centered around the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River. The dam, completed in 1938, created a large reservoir from which water could be brought to Franklin County through a series of canals. In 1948, the first Franklin County farm received irrigation water from Grand Coulee. The dam also supplied cheap hydroelectric power, which aided irrigation by powering pumps. When water came, people who had moved away in the drought years came back.

The completion of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project ensured the continued growth in agricultural products and livestock, not only in Franklin County but throughout the Columbia Basin. More labor was needed for this agricultural growth and migrant workers, mainly of Mexican descent, supplied much of it. As these new residents integrated into the counties, cities, and towns, bilingual programs were needed, especially in the school districts.

Continuing Development

Other growth continued. Memorial Park was dedicated and opened in 1947. A new golf course was built in Pasco in 1958. A new, larger library for Pasco was dedicated in April 1962. The old Carnegie Library became the home of the Franklin County Historical Society and Museum. Unique Frozen Foods put up a new potato processing plant in Connell in 1966. Kahlotus experienced a small boom when construction workers came to build nearby Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River. Pasco housed the workers who came to build Ice Harbor Dam in 1956.

More recent developments in Franklin County include the extension of Interstate 82 across the Columbia River from west Pasco to Richland, in 1986. Four new lanes of highway allowed for steady growth in west Pasco, most notably the completion of the Trade Recreation and Agricultural Center (TRAC) and Tri-Cities Stadium. The TRAC facility hosts many community events for both Benton and Franklin counties, including the Northwest Sportsman’s Trade Show. Tri-Cities Stadium plays host to the professional baseball team, Tri-City Dust Devils.

Farther north, the Coyote Ridge Corrections Center in Connell has helped diversify the economy of that town. And Pasco's growth and economy will always be linked with its sister cities on the opposite bank of the Columbia -- Richland and Kennewick.

But as long as irrigation water keeps flowing, agriculture will be the economic base of Franklin County. In 1995. Pasco built a wastewater treatment plant to attract food processors that use huge amounts of water to wash vegetables. Mexicans had first entered the county as agricultural workers, and the county's Hispanic population continues to grow and diversify, with many stores and restaurants now owned by Spanish-speaking merchants.

In 2006, Franklin County became the first Hispanic-majority county in the Northwest, with nearly 57 percent of the population Hispanic, up from 47 percent in 2000. Franklin County is the fastest growing county in the Pacific Northwest.

Arid land, known as shrub-steppe, along the Snake River, 1800s

Courtesy Library of Congress (Neg. AEP-WAS141)

Franklin County, Washington

Courtesy U.S. Department of Agriculture

Confluence of Snake and Columbia rivers, 1805

Sketch by Meriwether Lewis, Courtesy UW Special Collections

Northern Pacific map of line through Pasco and Kennewick (detail), 1915

Courtesy Washington State University Archives (WSU 254 F597 .C359 1915)

Ainsworth, ca. 1885

Courtesy Yakima Valley Museum (Image 2002-850-786)

Lewis Street, Pasco, 1900s

Northern Pacific Depot, Pasco, 1910

Steamer Inland Empire docking at Pasco, ca. 1919

Franklin County Court House, Pasco, 1940s

Ice Harbor Dam, Pasco, 1960s

Railroad bridge across the Snake River at Pasco, March 2003


Richland II YFD-64 - History

Richland County, Illinois
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Richland County

Richland County -- situated in the southeast quarter of the State, and has an area of 361 square miles. It was organized from Edwards County in 1841. Among the early pioneers may be mentioned the Evans brothers, Thaddeus Morehouse, Hugh Calhoun and son, Thomas Gardner, James Parker, Cornelius De Long, James Gilmore and Elijah Nelson. In 1820 there were but 30 families in the district. The first frame houses - the Nelson and Mourehouse homesteads - were built in 1821, and, some years later, James Laws erected the first brick house. The pioneers traded at Vincennes, but, in 1825, a store was opened at Stringtown by Jacob May and the same year the first school was opened at Watertown, taught by Isaac Chauncey. The first church was erected by the Baptists in 1822, and services were conducted by William Martin, a Kentuckian. For a long time the mails were carried on horseback by Louis and James Beard, but, in 1824, Mills and Whetsell established a line of four-horse stages. The principal road, known as the "trace road," leading from Louisville to Cahokia, followed a buffalo and Indian trail about where the main street of Olney now is. Olney was selected as the county-seat upon the organization of the county, and a Mr. Lilly built the first house there. The chief branches of industry followed by the inhabitants are agriculture and fruit-growing. Population in 1880 was 15,545 in 1890 the population was 15,019 and 16,391 in 1900.
Source: "Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois", 1901

Cities, Towns and Populated Places
Calhoun * Claremont * Noble * Olney * Parkersburg
Amity * Berryville * Dundas * Elbow * Gallagher * Passport * Pureton * Schnell * Seminary * Stringtown * Wakefield * Wynoose


2021 - 2022 CatalogCourse Descriptions for HIST 1302

This is a Texas Common Course Number. This is a Dallas College Core Curriculum course.
Prerequisite Required: College level ready in Reading.
Course Description: A survey of the social, political, economic, cultural, and intellectual history of the United States from the Civil War/Reconstruction era to the present. United States History II examines industrialization, immigration, world wars, the Great Depression, Cold War and post-Cold War eras. Themes that may be addressed in United States History II include: American culture, religion, civil and human rights, technological change, economic change, immigration and migration, urbanization and suburbanization, the expansion of the federal government, and the study of U.S. foreign policy. (3 Lec.)
Coordinating Board Academic Approval Number 5401025125

Designated by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board for general academic transfer among community, state, and technical colleges in Texas and state public four-year colleges and universities as freshman and sophomore general education courses.


WECM (Workforce Education Course Manual) Courses

Designated by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board as workforce education (technical) courses offered for credit and CEUs (Continuing Education Units). While these courses are designed to transfer among state community colleges, they are not designed to automatically transfer to public four-year colleges and universities.


In a small town in Washington state, pride and shame over atomic legacy

RICHLAND, Wash. — The workers inside Hanford’s nuclear reactors in the early 1940s knew their jobs were important, even if many of them didn’t know why. They worked hard, and for that they were paid well. They tucked their children into bed at night in handsome homes with green lawns on streets named for brilliant engineers —Goethals Drive, Jadwin Avenue.

The secrecy around Hanford, a part of the Manhattan Project, came to light on Aug. 9, 1945, when U.S. forces dropped a thick-bellied, 10,000-pound plutonium-filled bomb called Fat Man on Nagasaki, Japan — vaporizing some 60,000 to 80,000 people in an instant and leading to the end of World War II. All along at Hanford, they had been contributing to the war effort, producing plutonium that would make up the core of Fat Man.

“Peace!” the local newspaper headlines cried on Aug. 14, 1945. “Our bomb clinched it!”

“This town just went totally nuts,” said Burt Pierard, 74, who remembers beating pots and pans in a parade of children around his neighborhood. “It was euphoria, just the whole atmosphere was party-time, patriotic.”

Richland’s pride flooded into the hallways of the local high school. That fall, the students of Columbia High voted to change their mascot from the Beavers to the Bombers, and the yearbook for that school year was dedicated to the atomic bomb. Mushroom clouds found their way onto the school crest, class rings and football helmets. In the 1980s the school became Richland High and adopted a new logo: a bright yellow capital R with a white mushroom cloud billowing up behind it. They called it the R-Cloud.

Today, Richland’s plutonium days are behind it, but many residents are still proud of what their predecessors made here. The local Atomic Ale Brewpub sells pints of Half-Life Hefe and Cerium Saison. There’s a drive-through coffee stand called Bombshellz, and a gym called Fallout Crossfit. A walk-up hamburger joint sells “Bomber Burgers” with names like the “B-17 Flying Fortress” and the “Meltdown.”

But there’s no symbol more prominent in Richland than the high school’s R-Cloud, which hangs floor-to-ceiling on the side of the cafeteria. It’s splashed across the center of the shiny gym floor and printed on T-shirts and infant onesies. Windshield stickers on cars in the area boast there’s a Bomber inside.

For some, Richland High’s mascot embodies political incorrectness: a symbol that glorifies destruction and the deaths of innocents, a mark of hatred and fear. The bombs changed “humanity’s relationship with technology,” said Tim Connor, who was born in Hanford in the 1950s. Connor went on to become an investigative journalist and activist, working to shut down plutonium production at Hanford, which is now considered the most contaminated nuclear site in the country. “We really used our best and brightest to unlock the secrets of the atom that, in a way, still hold the world hostage to this incredible terror.”

But for Pierard, a 1959 local graduate with cloudy blue eyes and a long gray ponytail, the Bombers R-Cloud is an inspiring reminder of a time when Richland, in his mind, saved the world. He’s not willing to see this symbol dismissed without a fight. “If you are gonna take my R-Cloud away from me,” he said, rolling back his black sweatshirt to reveal a green and gold R-Cloud tattooed onto his right shoulder, “you’re gonna rip it off my cold, dead arm.”

For just as long as Richland students and alumni have shouted that they are “proud of the cloud,” the R-Cloud has raised eyebrows. For years, alumni have fought off R-Cloud detractors in newspaper letters and on the vibrant Alumni Sandstorm website. At the height of the Cold War, news reporters flocked to Richland to hear the student body chant “Nuke ‘em till they glow!” across football fields and basketball courts. In 1985, one newspaper said the logo gave the impression that Washingtonians viewed the atomic industry with “chilling flippancy.” In 1988, Tom Brokaw brought television cameras and a Japanese delegation to watch students vote in favor of keeping the cloud as their mascot. The next year, a National Geographic photographer captured a student in green and gold facepaint with a hachimaki band (worn by World War II kamikaze fighters) tied around his head. In the photo, he stares into the camera with a look that dares someone to challenge him.

But even the most ardent supporters have started to bend. The shift began in 1993, when the school’s installed a mural in the courtyard depicting a B-17 from 1944 called “Day’s Pay.” The bomber was named by workers from Hanford who rallied together to donate one day’s wages to purchase a B-17 for the war effort. They called the donated aircraft “Day’s Pay.”

In the 1990s, local newspapers reported that the Day’s Pay bomber, not the bomb itself, was the school’s namesake. Local museums and faculty at the high school repeated this narrative. Jim Qualheim, student activities director and track coach at the school, said students responded well. “That’s our community. That’s very, very patriotic,” he said. “It’s a great story.”

But many alumni were outraged by what they saw as an attempt to revise history to be more palatable by modern standards. Keith Maupin, a now-deceased alum, issued a report proving that the Bomber name was a direct reference to the Fat Man. In an article titled “The Bomber, The Bomb and the Bombers,” Maupin wrote that “the school used the mushroom cloud prior to any reference of Day’s Pay.”

“Tastes do indeed change,” Maupin wrote, “but facts do not.”

Qualheim, an alumnus of the school who has taught there since 1979, said he prefers to stay quiet about the Richland High mascot these days. In the past, he had expressed his personal distaste for the R-Cloud after visiting the Hiroshima Peace Memorial. Since then, he feels branded by some alumni as a conspirator looking to rewrite history yet again.

“I certainly don’t run around carrying a picket sign saying, ‘Down with the cloud!’” Qualheim said. But he won’t wear the R-Cloud mascot, and he’s removed it from uniforms for the students he coaches. But he no longer has the energy to fight it. If a student asks, he’ll talk about what he sees in the logo.

“Some people look at [the R-Cloud] as a peace symbol. When I see that, I see that vaporized shadow in the cement and I see those melted baby bottles and melted tricycles. That’s what I see,” he said. “Their skin was dripping from their bodies.”

To Trisha Pritikin, who grew up in Richland but moved away years ago, the R-Cloud has only negative connotations. “It indicates a joy for destruction and death,” she said. “Like, ‘Let’s celebrate the fact that we can destroy and kill with this atomic technology.’” She sees it as a blight on Richland.

“I’m glad to tell anybody that I was born and raised in Richland, and if indeed the bomb did end the war, then I’m so glad it saved a lot of lives,” she said. “But I’m not proud of the death and destruction brought by the bomb. How could anybody be?”

Pritikin is a Hanford Downwinder, who watched her parents die from cancer and has thyroid disease that she attributes to the radioactive emissions from Hanford. “My whole family got wiped out,” she said.

Hanford’s toxic reach didn’t stop at the site’s barbed-wire fences: radioactive emissions released into the air fell on fields where livestock grazed. Soon, local children were drinking tainted milk, fish from the Columbia River were contaminated, and the Oregon Health Division deemed it “the most radioactive river in the world from World War II to the 1970s.” Thousands of people who were unknowingly exposed have filed claims, but very few have seen any compensation.

“They blanketed the community and beyond with radiation, and they didn’t tell us. It seems to me that would put a little dent in the pride around [the mascot],” Pritikin said.


Japan’s greatest Pacific base – Truk atoll

The US geographical (rather than operational) codename for Truk atoll in the Caroline islands group of the central Pacific between 1941 and 1945 was originally ‘Anaconda’ and then ‘Panhandle’. A group of hilly islands, the tips of drowned mountain peaks, surrounded by a large barrier reef with five passes, Truk is a large atoll lying to the east of the centre of the Caroline islands group with the Palau islands group 1,035 miles (1665 km) to the west, Guam in the Mariana islands group 555 miles (895 km) to the north-west, Kwajalein atoll in the Marshall islands group 925 miles (1490 km) to the east, and Rabaul on New Britain islands in the Bismarck archipelago 690 miles (1110 km) to the south. The USA’s main base in the Pacific Ocean, Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian islands group, is 3,260 miles (5245 km) to the northeast.

Truk atoll measures about 40 miles (54 km) on both its north/south and east/west axes, and is approximately triangular in shape. It is a complex atoll with 98 land masses in the form of 11 major islands, 46 smaller islands and islets in the lagoon, and 41 smaller islands and islets on the fringing reef, which has a circumference of 140 miles (225 km) and encloses a lagoon measuring 31 by 49 miles (50 by 79 km) with an area of 820 sq miles (2130 km²). Truk atoll’s land area is 35.93 sq miles (93.07 km²), and it highest elevation is 1,453 ft (443 m). Most of the rim islands and islets on the atoll’s eastern side are long and narrow, while smaller islets are scattered densely along its north-western side. The south-western side’s islets are more widely spaced. There are five main entrance passages into the lagoon: North (‘Wayward’), North-East (‘Alphonse’), Otta (‘Monsoon’) in the south-east, and South or Aulap (‘Forceps’) and Piaanu (‘Glowworm’) in the west. Just a few miles off the south-eastern corner of the atoll at Otta Passage is the elongated oval Kuop or Kunyuna atoll, measuring 18 by 5 miles (29 by 8 km), while the even smaller and circular Losap atoll is about 60 miles (96 km) to the south-east.

From west to east, the main islands within the lagoon are Tol (‘Portfolio’), Udot (‘Paleface’), Param (‘Codling’), Fefan (‘Calefaction’), Moen (‘Anathema’), Dublon (‘Adherent’) and Uman (‘Centimeter’). Tol is the largest of these, and islets located around it bear the names of days of the week. The islands inside the lagoon are covered with comparatively high hills, covered by palms and brush, and limned by narrow fringing reefs.

The two most important of the islands are in the lagoon’s western portion. The larger of the two, and the second largest in the lagoon, is Moen which in World War II had two airfields (Moen 1 and 2 at its northern and southern corners respectively) and a seaplane base. To the south of Moen is Dublon, the fourth largest island in the lagoon (after Fefan), which included the principal town and the Japanese administrative headquarters of the Central Caroline District. It was also the port of entry and possessed a seaplane base. Immediately off the south central shore of Dublon is the 83-acre (33.6-hectare) islet of Eten (‘Bannister’), whose shore had been shaped into a rectangle and included an airfield, thereby giving the islet an appearance not dissimilar to that of an aircraft carrier. Near the centre of the lagoon, Param also had an airfield. A small island on the eastern side of Otta Passage at the atoll’s south-eastern corner Mesegon island also sported a small airfield. Members of the local population were not permitted on these islands, and those living on them had been moved to other islands.

Before the start of the Pacific War, there were almost 3,000 Japanese civilians and persons of the 18,000 native population living on the atoll.

The Japanese presence starts

Japanese traders had arrived on Truk in 1891, when the islands were a Spanish possession. In 1898 Spain sold most of its Pacific island possessions to Germany, which lost them to Japan early in World War I. In 1920 Japan received a League of Nations mandate over the islands, and in 1939 began the large-scale development of Truk as its major naval base in the the Mandated Territory. It was fortified with coast-defence artillery covering the five passes, which were also blocked by command-detonated mines, while other guns were positioned to prevent landings on the outer islands. Most of the warplanes, troops, supplies and matériel for the Solomon islands, Bismarck islands, New Guinea and other early Japanese campaigns of aggression stages through Truk atoll, as later did those required to defend the Japanese empire’s shrinking perimeter. In February 1942 the headquarters of the 4th Fleet arrived on Truk from the Palau islands group and took up residence on Dublon island, which had about 1,200 buildings and facilities, including a 2,500-ton floating dry dock, to make temporary repairs on many types of warship. In July 1942 the Combined Fleet (elements of the 1st Fleet, 2nd Fleet, 3rd Fleet and 6th Fleet, of which the last was responsible for submarine operations) arrived on Truk. At the height of the atoll’s life as a Japanese base area, as many as 1,000 ships were on occasion to be found in the lagoon. While Truk was undoubtedly a superior anchorage and also well defended, its repair facilities were limited.

Large ground defence force

Truk was defended not only by major naval and air forces, but also by significant ground forces. These included the 52nd Division (69th Regiment and 150th Regiment but not the 107th Regiment, which had been detached to Ponape), most of the 51st Independent Mixed Brigade, and army service and support troops, as well as the navy’s 4th Base Force, 41st Guard Force, 101st Sasebo Special Naval Landing Force, and major air base service units as well as construction units with 5,200 labourers. Lieutenant General Shunsaburo Mugikura commanded both the 52nd Division and the 31st Army as well as the Truk District Group. Vice Admiral Chuichi Hara commanded the naval forces of the 4th Fleet remaining in the islands.

The Japanese construction of fortifications did not begin until 1940 and then proceeded at a comparatively leisurely pace until January 1944. The garrison had reached a strength of 7,500 army and about 4,000 naval personnel by February 1944, and as noted above coast-defence artillery was sited to cover all five passes, which were also protected by controlled mines. However, there were only 40 anti-aircraft guns with no fire-control radar.

In May 1945 there were an estimated 13,600 army troops and 10,600 naval personnel. Several of the atolls around Truk were also defended, and these included Woleai (5,500 men of Major General Katsumi Kitamura’s 50th Independent Mixed Brigade and Commander Yoshinobu Miyata’s 44th Guard Force) Puluwat (3,500 men of the 11th Independent Mixed Brigade and a naval detachment) Nomoi (2,400 men of the 51st Independent Mixed Brigade and a naval detachment) Ponape (8,000 men of Major General Masao Watanabe’s 52nd Independent Mixed Brigade, 107th Regiment and Captain Jun Naito’s 42nd Guard Force and Kapingamarang (400 men of army and navy detachments).

The Japanese garrison peaked at 27,856 naval personnel under Hara’s command and 16,737 army personnel under the tactical command of Major General Kanenobu Ishuin, commander of the 51st Independent Mixed Brigade, on the atoll’s various islands, on which the Japanese Civil Engineering Department and Naval Construction Department had built roads, trenches, bunkers and caves. The whole defensive complex included five airfields, seaplane bases, a torpedo boat station, submarine repair facilities, a communications centre and a radar station.

The US forces had no strategically compelling reason for a direct assault on the Japanese in and around Truk atoll, which were therefore to be neutralised by air and sea forces in the manner which was being accomplished very effectively against Rabaul. The 5th Fleet attacked Truk atoll from the air in ‘Hailstone’ on 17/18 February 1944: eight aircraft carriers, six battleships, 10 cruisers and 28 destroyers of Task Force 58 approached Truk from the north-east and sailed around the atoll and back to the north-east while launching 30 air strikes of significantly more power than the two Japanese ‘Ai’ strikes on Pearl Harbor. The Combined Fleet, which TF58 had hoped to catch in the lagoon, had taken heed of indicators of the coming attack and had withdrawn westward to the Palau islands group on 10 February, however. The US strikes did sink two cruisers, two destroyers, one aircraft ferry, two submarine tenders, one auxiliary merchant cruiser, six tankers and 17 merchant ships, destroyed some 100 aircraft on the ground and in the air, and inflicted serious damage to shore installations.

The Americans did not make their final decision whether or not to assault Truk until 12 March 1944, when they decided that the base would be bypassed. Another series of carrier strikes was carried out on 29/30 April to destroy the remaining Japanese air power, which by then had been rebuilt to 104 aircraft. Of these, about 93 were destroyed in the air or on the ground, at a cost to the Americans of 35 aircraft: more than half of the downed US airmen were rescued by submarines or seaplanes, and included one crew within Truk lagoon itself. Occasional raids thereafter, flown mostly from Eniwetok and the Admiralty islands group, prevented the base from becoming once more any form of serious threat.

Consolidated B-24 Liberator and Boeing B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers continued to raid Truk on a frequent basis until the end of the war, and the atoll was seen as providing a good training target for newly arrived bomber units.

On 2 September 1945, Hara and Mugikura surrendered the Truk garrison and the outlying garrisons, a total of 130,000 military personnel and civilians, to Vice Admiral George D. Murray aboard the heavy cruiser Portland in the largest single surrender of the Pacific Ocean Areas. Occupation forces of the US Marine Corps did not arrive until 24 November, and were then based on Moen island.


Richland 200: Athletes 191-200 have what it takes to be great

CLOSE

Ontario's Brooklynn Adkins comes back as one of the best female golfers in Richland County and could become a three-time district qualifier in the fall. (Photo: Jon Spencer/News Journal)

The 2nd Annual Richland 200 series is off and running with its first batch of athletes. The summer-long project is aimed at promoting 200 of Richland County's best high school athletes returning for the 2021-22 athletic season.

Let's check out these 10 exceptional athletes as we kick things off.

200: Alexis Goad, Mansfield Senior

Alexis Goad has been a bright spot for the Mansfield Senior Tygers softball team. A program looking to build some momentum and turn around recent struggles, Goad has been the cornerstone of the team for the last three years. Last season, she hit .324 and scored 11 runs for the Tygers. She will return for her senior season looking to put up better numbers and bring leadership to the diamond. Hopefully, she can be credited with starting the change in culture in the program.

199: Nick Roberts, Plymouth

The Plymouth Big Red won the program's first Firelands Conference championship thanks to a dedicated bunch who put everything they had into turning the program around. A main piece of the team is senior Nick Roberts who finished as the 113-pound runner-up at the FC tournament. A week later, he took fourth at the sectional tournament as the Big Red sent a bunch to districts. Roberts bowed out in the consolation semifinals, but that doesn't take away from a successful junior season that put Plymouth wrestling on the map. He has a chance to help the team post back-to-back FC titles and make a bit of program history in the process.

198: Angelo Gasper, St. Peter&rsquos

A junior goalie, Gasper was the at the forefront of the St. Peter's Spartans defense last season. Though the Spartans had a bit of a rough year, Gasper stood out on the pitch as he earned honorable mention All-District in Division III and honorable mention All-Mid-Buckeye Conference honors as a sophomore. As a freshman, he was first team in both so he is ready for a bounceback year and with him in goal, the Spartans could flip the script on a down 2020 season and get back on track in a hurry.

St. Peter's Angelo Gasper is back in goal for his junior season for the Spartans. (Photo: Jake Furr/ News Journal)

197: Chloe Trine, Plymouth

The Plymouth Big Red softball team has one of the brightest futures of any team in Richland County and Chloe Trine will be a name to keep up with in 2022. She hit .485 with 32 hits including five doubles and a home run to go with four RBI and 20 runs scored as she earned honorable mention All-Firelands Conference honors. It was a big sophomore year for the youngster. She was huge in the Big Red's 9-8 district semifinal win over Monroeville a few weeks ago. She is expected to make a huge jump during her junior season as the Big Red have Firelands Conference title hopes.

196: Tyler Jackson, Lexington

The Lexington boys golf team has plenty of talent to retake the throne in the Ohio Cardinal Conference and Tyler Jackson could be one of those guys who surprise people in 2021. Last season as a junior, Jackson carded an 87 at the district tournament finishing tied for 23rd in the field. It was a nice bounce-back performance from the 89 he carded during the sectional tournament so he showed some poise which is rare on the golf course. As a senior, he is back ready to be the leader the Minutemen need in order to dethrone Ashland.

195: Brody Miller, Shelby

Brody Miller had an impressive sophomore season on the golf course as he also ended his season competing in the district tournament. At Findlay Country Club, Miller posted a 91 for the 24th-best card of the day. The week before, he carded an 82 at Thunderbird Hills in the sectional tournament. It had to be a nerve-racking experience for the youngester in the district tournament, but it was a huge luxury to play on the big stage very early in his career. Miller has the capability to go low on the course as he earned an athlete of the week nomination when he fired a 37 during a Mid-Ohio Athletic Conference match with Clear Fork. Keep an eye on this kid in 2022. He is going to do some special things on the golf course.

194: Troy Chapman, Lexington

The Lexington boys golf team is in great hands as Chapman takes over the No. 1 spot in the lineup. As a sophomore, Chapman ended his season in the Division I district tournament carding an 86 posing the 22nd-best score of the entire field. Not bad for a young guy on a big stage. At the sectional tournament, Chapman fired an 82 and was just one stroke behind No. 1 man Trevor Dials with the eighth-best score of that tournament. Chapman returns for his junior season with some very high expectations as the Minutemen hope to challenge Ashland for the Ohio Cardinal Conference championship in 2021.

193: Brooklynn Adkins, Ontario

Brooklynn Adkins burst onto the scenes as a freshman in 2019 as a district qualifier. In 2020, as a sophomore, she put up an even better year. Adkins made it to the Division I district tournament again carding a 95 for the 19th-best score of the entire tournament. The week before, she finished in ninth place with a 94 and didn't need to punch her ticket to the next round with a playoff as she firmly clinched an individual qualifying spot. Adkins is just a junior in 2021 and has all of the shots in her bag to make the biggest jump of any area golfer. Qualifying for state in Division I is extremely tough, but Adkins is right on the cusp and could break through this season.

192: Zach Keffalas, St. Peter&rsquos

The St. Peter's Spartans had a special year on the track in 2021 and Zach Keffalas is a major reason why. During the program's first Mid-Buckeye Conference track championship in school history, Keffalas was named Most Outstanding Runner after winning the 800 and 3,200-meter runs. He also posted a personal best 4:51.81 in the 1,600 to take second. He was a regional qualifier in the mile, but didn't quite make it out to state in the race. He is coming back for his senior season and expect Keffalas to pull out all the stops for his final run at glory.

Shelby's Connor Henkel was the 15th-best long jumper in Division II this spring. (Photo: William Kosileski/News Journal)

191: Connor Henkel, Shelby

Henkel was the 15th-best boys long jumper at the Division II state track meet in 2021 leaping 20-07.75. He held impressive poise after fouling on his final two attempts, but he finished his junior season at the state track meet which is more than what many can say. Henkel comes back for his senior season motivated. He wanted to hit the 22-feet mark at state and if he keeps that goal in his mind all summer long, there is no doubt he can reach that and get back to state in 2022. A 22-footer could possibly land him on the All-Ohio spot. Expect big things from Henkel.


Richland II YFD-64 - History

Richland, Washington is rich in history. For hundreds of years the area was populated by Wanapum, Yakama and Walla Walla Indians. These tribes used the area to harvest salmon that troll the waters of the Columbia River each year. Eventually, William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition discovered the area in October 1805.

Original Ownership
A century later, in 1905, a man and his son purchased 2300 acres and proposed the town of Richland Washington. This was approved by the postal authorities and a year later the town of Richland was recorded in the Benton County courthouse. In 1910, Richland attained the status of a Washington Fourth Class City as the town was officially incorporated.

Hanford
Before the onset of World War II, the population of the quiet farm town of Richland hovered at about 300. As World War II was getting underway, the US Army purchased 640 square miles, displacing some residents, in order to provide housing for workers of their nearby nuclear project. By 1943, Richland had been designated as a “closed city”, a restricted access area that could only be accessed by residents and personnel approved by the US Army. The addresses were misleading and mail was postmarked as originating in Seattle.

At the end of the war the nearby nuclear facility was shut down and the US Army moved out of Richland Washington. Many of the nuclear workers that had resided onsite were displaced and many moved to Richland to plant family roots. Reports from 1945 reflect a population of 25,000.#idx-price-bar#

A short time later, in 1947, the Cold War began, reestablishing the need for a nuclear facility. Richland Wa again became a hotbed of activity and many of the residents worked at Hanford, the nearby nuclear development facility.

Richland charted a First Class City incorporation in 1958 and it was granted. Hanford continued to provide employment through 1987 as a weapons developer. After the weapons development ceased in 1987, Hanford became an environmental cleanup site. As an environmental site, Hanford still employs a significant portion of Richland residents.

Current Affects
The war-time history left its permanent mark on Richland. Richland High School adopted the name “The Bombers”, complete with a mushroom cloud representing nuclear weapons, and the name and cloud remain today. Because the town was designed and developed by the Army Corps of Engineers, the street names were taken from history – George Washington Way is the main street in the town, Stevens Way is named after Panama Canal’s chief engineer. After 1958, town officials named many of the new streets after US Army Generals and words associated with nuclear development.

In 1989, Washington State University Tri-Cities campus set up shop in northern Richland. A medical community is also developing, thanks in part to the Kadlec Medical Center, a hospital and training center. A few wineries dot the landscape, bringing find Washington wines to tables around the world.


Look back in history

Reenactors will depict events from the Revolutionary War, Civil War, and World Wars I and II are scheduled to participate in the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

A reenactor portraying President Abraham Lincoln will be among the participants in the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

Displays and demonstrations of period weapons will be conducted at the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

The Camp Chase Fife and Drum group will perform during the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

MANSFIELD — Cannon fire will come alive again at the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

Some 380 exhibitors from 38 states will be participating in Ohio’s only Civil War and World War I & II Show. The show features 700 tables ofmilitary memorabilia from 1775 through 1945 for buy, sell, trade, and display making this the largest quality show of its kindin the country. In addition, related items such as books, images, photographs, paper goods, Civil War prints, and some women’s apparel will be available to the public and collectors.

In conjunction with the military show, the 28th annual artillery show will feature full-size cannons, limbers, caisson, and mortars. This is the only artillery show of this kind in the country where persons can view field guns, equipment and displays that relate to America’s wars from 1775 through 1945. As an added feature, people will have a rare opportunity to see cannon firing demonstrations on Saturday at 11:30 a.m. and 2 p.m. and Sunday at 11:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. Enjoy a rare demonstrationfrom the 36th U.S. Infantry Division and 100th Jäger German Unit on Saturday at 4:30 p.m.

This year’s show will feature a 1776 Revolutionary War Living History Encampment whose members will be performing drills, firing muskets, exhibiting colonial period camp cooking, and also showing and explaining various period military attire and other demonstrations. Another feature of the show will be a Civil War field hospital scenario with simulated limb amputations and medical practices of the Civil War. Along with this, there will several Living History Civil War Encampments depicting military life.

Other outdoor features include period music by harp/dulcimer and banjo/violins. A sutler’s row will have available reproduction items and apparel for both the military and civilian re-enactors.

See World War II encampments, weapons and vehicles. Experience how the soldiers lived and survived in their camps by touring a living history encampment. The Marlboro Volunteer Traveling Museum will offer a spectacular display of our history from Revolutionary War up to current timesincluding military vehicles. You can talk with Veterans and living historians. There will be an outdoor church service for re-enactors, exhibitors, and public at 10 a.m. on Sunday at the flagpole.

President Abraham Lincoln will be attending the show on both Saturday and Sunday. Be sure to listen in for his “Gettysburg Address.” A most requested feature for this year will be music performances by the Camp Chase Fife and Drum. Mark your calendars and take time to look back in history. Visit the show website for more information www.ohiocivilwarshow.com.

The show is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Saturday and 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. on Sunday. Admission is $7. Children under age 12 are admitted free when accompanied by an adult. Parking is included in the cost of admission.

Organizers said this year’s show is following Ohio regulations for social distancing and wearing facemasks. Facemasks will be required for everyone attending the show. Attendees will be required to wear a facemask inside each building and while outside if you cannot keep maintain six feet between yourself and other persons. Keep six feet distance from persons while touring the buildings and visiting the encampments. Hand sanitation stations will be available throughout the show buildings.

Reenactors will depict events from the Revolutionary War, Civil War, and World Wars I and II are scheduled to participate in the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

A reenactor portraying President Abraham Lincoln will be among the participants in the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

Displays and demonstrations of period weapons will be conducted at the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.

The Camp Chase Fife and Drum group will perform during the 43rd annual Ohio Civil War and World War I & II Show scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 1-2 at the Richland County Fairgrounds in Mansfield.


Watch the video: Richland Review: October 29th, 2013 (July 2022).


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