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Archaeologists get a Glimpse of Everyday Life in an Ancient Egyptian Royal Outpost

Archaeologists get a Glimpse of Everyday Life in an Ancient Egyptian Royal Outpost


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Hieroglyphic sealings, mudbrick buildings, storage containers, and small pieces of copper provide archaeologists with a glimpse into life in a Nile Valley settlement during the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt. The artifacts tell of royal prospectors and miners sent in search of precious gems and locals filling the necessities of beer and bread production.

Excavations are being led by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, according to Phys.org. Archaeologists from the institute have been slowly unearthing the well-preserved settlement of Tell Edfu in the Nile Valley for the last 16 years. Each layer providing new glimpses on previous generations. Now they are reaching some of the earliest parts of the site, including two large buildings dating to about 2400-2350 BC (Egypt’s late Fifth Dynasty).

Aerial view of the Old Kingdom excavation area (Zone 2) at Tell Edfu. ( Tell Edfu Project )

Nadine Moeller, associate professor of Egyptian archaeology and co-leader of the project with Oriental Institute research associate Gregory Marouard, said “It's a wonderful find because we have so little information about this era of settlement in the southern provinces. We don't know any such similar complex for the Old Kingdom.”

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Independent reports the team found more than 200 broken clay sealings with hieroglyphic inscriptions. These seals were planned for use on boxes, bags, ceramic storage containers, and sealed papyrus letters. Several of the sealings bear the names and titles of ancient Egyptian officials. One specifically mentions a leader of the sementiu, royal prospectors for King Djedkare-Isei.

Determinative of the sementiu on clay sealing. ( Tell Edfu Project )

Officials from Memphis may have lodged in the buildings as they oversaw mining expeditions. Archaeologists say that the discovery of Red Sea shells and ceramics imported from Nubia add more evidence for the officials leading royal expeditions into the Eastern Desert. Moeller explained :

“It's just about this time that the Egyptian royalty, until then focused on the northern area directly around the capital Memphis, began to expand its reach after a period of contraction during the fourth and much of the fifth dynasties. This is a first sign that the ancient city of Edfu was evolving into an important departure point for large expeditions leaving for the Eastern desert regions, and possibly the Red Sea shore, located about 125 miles to the east.”

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The buildings are mudbrick and have large open courtyards. Artifacts found within suggest they were generally used as administration centers. However, the archaeologists find it strange that pieces of the building, such as the wooden door, were never recycled for later construction projects as was the norm. It may be that the buildings also held religious significance at some point. They are located just 20 yards from a temple to Horus.

Courtyard of the Southern administrative building. ( Tell Edfu Project )

Storage containers and other artifacts suggest beer and bread were made in some of the workshops at the complex. And copper slag, crucible fragments, and small weights show copper was probably smelted in other workshops.

Work is not finished at Tell Edfu and Moeller expects more exciting discoveries in the future,

“It's such a unique site. We've had a hard time finding architectural parallels, because no other settlement in Upper Egypt has such extensive remains from this time period. We've learned so much at Tell Edfu, and there's still more to come.”


    The Tomb of Queen Sesheshet

    "Let's start from the beginning," Abdel Hakim Karar suggests as he scampers up the north side of an archaeological dig of sun-bleached pink stone and gravel.

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    When you make your living unearthing the royal riches of ancient Egypt, the beginning is a very distant place indeed – more than four millennia away, during the time of the 6th dynasty. We are standing on the rim of the necropolis of King Teti at Saqqara, where Karar and his team of archaeologists are excavating the tomb of Queen Sesheshet, Teti's mother. The tomb, and the once five-story-high pyramid that accommodates it, was until recently a dump for the sand and detritus of surrounding digs. But the intuitive power of Karar and his inimitable boss, Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, rescued it from oblivion last November. It was a once-in-a-lifetime strike – how often does one "discover" a pyramid? – and it may shed light on a particularly notorious episode in a pharaonic tradition of court intrigue and murder most foul.

    "We suspected this was the mother's pyramid," says Karar, as he gestures to a horizon line interrupted only by the iconic step pyramid of Saqqara, the Eiffel Tower of its time, built by the legendary 3rd dynasty ruler Imhotep. "Then we came across stones carved with the characters for 'Seshi' and we knew what it was."

    The surrounding complex was discovered and unearthed by a fraternity of French and British archaeologists in the mid-19th century. Its centerpiece is the pyramid of Teti, the first ruler of the 6th dynasty, and the subsidiary pyramids of his two principal wives, queens Iput I and Khuit. Like many such digs in Egypt -- a country that, because of its strategically vital location, has played host to several great civilizations -- Saqqara offers a bounty of archaeological wealth beyond what was once the property of pharaohs. Enveloping the site is a containing wall of dung-colored mud bricks built in 330 B.C. by Ptolemy I, the Macedonian general who campaigned with Alexander the Great and who may have been mentored by Aristotle. The U-shaped wall contained a drawing of the funeral procession that followed the death of a sacred bull as ordained under Serapis, the Greek deity promoted by Ptolemy as a way to fuse Hellenist and Greek religions.

    The base of Sesheshet's pyramid is 72 square feet with a pitch of 51 degrees and a height of 46 feet. (Stephen Glain) Egyptian archaeologists work at an ancient burial ground in Saqqara, dating back to 2,700 B.C., where a 4,300-year-old pyramid has been discovered at the Saqqara necropolis. It was first built for Queen Sesheshet, the mother of King Teti who founded the 6th Dynasty of Egypt's Old Kingdom. (AFP Photo / Khaled Desouki) The Saqqara necropolis with the step pyramid in the background. One of the tombs belonged to a king's official and the other to a 5th dynasty singer who lived and performed over 4,000 years ago. (AFP Photo / Sameh Sherif) Beginning in the 4th dynasty, the kings of Egypt commemorated their wives and mother with regal monuments. (Stephen Glain)

    4,000-Year-Old Guide to the Ancient Egyptian Underworld May Be Oldest Illustrated ‘Book’

    In ancient Egypt, death wasn’t merciful enough to end one’s troubles. The afterlife was fraught with peril, too, and the dead had to contend with something of a spiritual obstacle course to reach Rostau, the glorious realm of Osiris, god of death.

    At least two paths to Rostau existed: one by land, another by sea. Both were arduous enough to require a guidebook, the aptly named Book of Two Ways. This intricate map of the ancient Egyptian underworld may be the first illustrated “book” in history. And archaeologists have now unearthed a 4,000-year-old-copy—possibly the oldest version ever found, reports Franz Lidz for the New York Times.

    The find, described in a recent paper in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, nudges the history of ancient literature backward in time, underscoring the dedication and sophistication with which these individuals tackled the enigma of their own mortality.

    “The ancient Egyptians were obsessed with life in all its forms,” says Rita Lucarelli, an Egyptology curator at the University of California, Berkeley, in an interview with Lidz. “Death for them was a new life.”

    The newest (technically, oldest) copy of Book of Two Ways joins just two dozen others known to modern archaeologists. It unseats the previous record-holder by about 40 years, Colin Barras reported for New Scientist in October. Discovered in 2012 during excavation of a burial shaft in the Egyptian village of Dayr al-Barshā (or Deir El Bersha), the text was found in a coffin that had largely escaped the attention of both grave robbers and previous generations of archaeologists.

    Unlike the bound books of modern times, the ancient text wasn’t a standalone volume. Instead, excerpts were written on the inside of the sarcophagus itself, surviving in the form of two rotting cedar panels etched with images and hieroglyphs. The inscriptions clearly quote the Book of Two Ways, and other artifacts in the grave have been dated to the reign of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II, who ruled until 2010 B.C.

    Easily accessible to the entombed, such “coffin texts” were meant to “situate the deceased in the world of the gods,” study author Harco Willems, an Egyptologist at the University of Leuven in Belgium, tells Lidz. This particular sarcophagus was occupied by a high-status woman named Ankh, though the afterworld instructions in her final resting place actually refer to her as “he.”

    “The funny thing is the whole idea of how you survive in the netherworld is expressed in male terms,” Willems told Barras.

    In ancient Egypt, rebirth was linked most closely to male gods dead women, then, had to adopt the pronoun “he” to be more like Osiris himself, Kara Cooney, an expert on Egyptian art and architecture at the University of California, Los Angeles, explains to Lidz.

    But Ankh’s Book of Two Ways still showed some hints of personalization. Her journey, the text portended, might have been waylaid early on by a ring of fire. Later, she may have dealt with demons, spirits and even earthly plights like fire. The only protection against these ills were spells cast by the deceased Ankh herself. Luckily, the companion text came with specific instructions on these incantations.

    The “maps” of this book and others are muddled with meandering lines and ominous figures—symbols difficult to interpret in modern times. Some researchers think the depictions may have been drawn from images in life, rather than death, evoking rituals meant to bring deceased gods or humans back from the dead. Either way, the texts signified rebirth, in this world or another.

    That makes excerpts from Book of Two Ways common fixtures of Egyptian graves. Already, this “oldest” copy may have a contender, Barras reports: a leather scroll version discovered by Egyptologist Wael Sherbiny, who has yet to publish his findings. Whatever is revealed next, archaeologists will certainly be vying for a glimpse—there’s no two ways about it.


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    Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology/Reuters

    The team began digging in September 2020, between the temples of the pharaohs Ramses III and Amenhotep III near Luxor, which is 300 miles south of the capital, Cairo.

    "The Egyptian mission under Dr Zahi Hawass found the city that was lost under the sands," the archaeology team said.

    "The city is 3,000 years old, dates to the reign of [pharaoh] Amenhotep III, and continued to be used by [pharaohs] Tutankhamun and Ay."

    Betsy Bryan, Professor of Egyptian art and archaeology at Johns Hopkins University, said the find was the "second most important archaeological discovery since the tomb of Tutankhamun".

    Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology/Reuters

    The team found jewellery, coloured pots, scarab beetle amulets, and mud bricks with the seals of the pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled for nearly four decades during a period of great wealth and power.

    And that's not all! After seven months of careful digging, several neighbourhoods were uncovered, including a bakery complete with ovens and storage pottery, as well as work and residential districts.

    Bryan said the city "will give us a rare glimpse into the life of the Ancient Egyptians at the time where the empire was at his wealthiest".

    Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology/Reuters

    "Within weeks, to the team's great surprise, formations of mud bricks began to appear in all directions," the team's statement said. "What they unearthed was the site of a large city in a good condition of preservation, with almost complete walls, and with rooms filled with tools of daily life.

    "The archaeological layers have laid untouched for thousands of years, left by the ancient residents as if it were yesterday."

    The team said it was hopeful that more important finds would be revealed, and said they had already discovered groups of tombs reached through "stairs carved into the rock", similar to those found in the Valley of the Kings.

    "The mission expects to uncover untouched tombs filled with treasures," the statement added.

    What do you think of this story? Let us know in the comments below.


    From Hieroglyphics to Hymns

    The earliest poetry in Egypt was likely part of an oral tradition. Hymns, stories, and prayers were passed down from speaker to speaker. It's likely that only one person out of every hundred could read and write, according to Jacco Dieleman, an Egyptologist at the University of California, Los Angeles.

    The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was likely invented to help with trade, allowing merchants record their wares and account for their stock. Later hieroglyphic writing found on nobles' tombs gave biographical accounts of the tombs' occupants for passersby to read. Over time, longer biographies, narrative poems, and songs also began to appear.

    To read ancient Egyptian poetry and other writings is a two-step process, Dieleman said. Much of the writing was done in hieratic script, a shorthand form of hieroglyphs. "When you have to write all of these beautiful [hieroglyphs] of birds, men, and women, it takes days to write a letter to your grandmother," Dieleman said.

    To begin deciphering the ancient texts, Dieleman uses detailed photographs of excavated writings, along with his own observations of actual artifacts, if possible. He then translates hieratic writing into hieroglyphs. From there, he gives sounds to the hieroglyphic consonants and pieces out words, sentences, and entire passages.

    Historical tales and hymns had been inscribed inside tomb walls, written on papyrus, and often scribbled onto shards of limestone pottery. "These shards are considered the scratch paper of the Egyptians," said Terry Wilfong, an Egyptologist at the University of Michigan.

    Wilfong said that students in ancient Egypt inscribed many of the surviving examples of the culture's poetry. The students likely copied down poems from other texts and dictation as part of their lessons.


    Red Land, Black Land : Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

    Displaying the unparalleled descriptive power, unerring eye for fascinating detail, keen insight, and trenchant wit that have made the novels she writes (as Elizabeth Peters and Barbara Michaels) perennial New York Times bestsellers, internationally renowned Egyptologist Barbara Mertz brings a long-buried civilization to vivid life. In Red Land, Black Land, she transports us back thousands of years and immerses us in the sights, aromas, and sounds of day-to-day living in the legendary desert realm that was ancient Egypt.

    Who were these people whose civilization has inspired myriad films, books, artwork, myths, and dreams, and who built astonishing monuments that still stagger the imagination five thousand years later? What did average Egyptians eat, drink, wear, gossip about, and aspire to? What were their amusements, their beliefs, their attitudes concerning religion, childrearing, nudity, premarital sex? Mertz ushers us into their homes, workplaces, temples, and palaces to give us an intimate view of the everyday worlds of the royal and commoner alike. We observe priests and painters, scribes and pyramid builders, slaves, housewives, and queens—and receive fascinating tips on how to perform tasks essential to ancient Egyptian living, from mummification to making papyrus.

    An eye-opening and endlessly entertaining companion volume to Temples, Tombs, and Hieroglyphs, Mertz's extraordinary history of ancient Egypt, Red Land, Black Land offers readers a brilliant display of rich description and fascinating edification. It brings us closer than ever before to the people of a great lost culture that was so different from—yet so surprisingly similar to—our own.

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    LibraryThing Review

    I read the original, unrevised version, copyright 1966. Lively account of the customs and beliefs of the ancient Egyptians, with a humorous take on the convictions of archaeologists, often supported . Читать весь отзыв

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    I loved this in large part because I was already a fan of Barbara Mertz's Egyptian mystery series, written under her pen name as Elizabeth Peters. Listening to this audiobook, it was very much as if . Читать весь отзыв


    Archaeologists discover 3,000-year-old lost Ancient Egyptian city

    Archaeologists have discovered the remains of a 3,000-year-old ‘Lost Golden City’ in Egypt.

    The lost city was filled with artefacts from everyday life, as well as some unusual human and animal remains.

    Archaeologist Dr Zahi Hawass said researchers have long been searching for the city, which was the largest industrial settlement in the area at the time.

    Dr Hawass, who led the archaeological mission, said researchers stumbled upon the find unexpectedly while they were investigating a structure thought to be King Tutankhamun’s mortuary temple.

    The team were excavating the partially buried temple last September when they found rows of mud bricks leading in all directions.

    They soon realised these were the walls of the largest ancient city ever discovered in Egypt.

    ‘Most important discovery’ since Tutankhamun

    Betsy Brian, professor of Egyptology at John Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA, said in a statement: ‘The discovery of this lost city is the second most important archaeological discovery since the tomb of Tutankhamun.’

    She added the discovery will give ‘a rare glimpse’ into the life of Ancient Egyptians in the wealthiest period in the empire’s history.

    The city was founded during the reign of king Amenhotep III: a period of great prosperity and international influence.

    It continued to be used by Egypt’s most famous pharaoh, Tutankhamun.

    Dr Hawass said: ‘The city’s streets are flanked by houses, which some of their walls are up to three metres (10 feet) high.

    ‘We can reveal that the city extends to the west, all the way to the famous Deir el-Medina.’

    Deir el-Medina was a village home to the artisans who worked on the Valley of the Kings, where Tutankhamun and many other famous pharoahs were buried.

    Palaces, businesses and homes

    Researchers said the city, which is built around three royal palaces, is in a good state of preservation, with nearly-complete walls and lots of artefacts from everyday life.

    The team found rings, scarab ornaments, wine vessels, coloured pottery and mud bricks inscribed with glyphs referring to King Amenhotep III.

    In the southern part of the city, they discovered a bakery and a large kitchen likely used to cater for workers.

    Another residential district remains partially uncovered. It is home to large units like used for domestic living, fenced off by a zigzag wall and accessible through only one entrance. Archaeologists said this may have been a security measure.

    A third area of the city was home to a workshop that produced mud bricks. Researchers found a large number of casting moulds likely used to create amulets and other intricate decorative objects.

    The researchers found tools that may have been used for spinning and weaving across the city. They found some evidence of metal and glass-making, but have yet to discover where in the city these goods were made.

    The team also discovered human and animal remains in the city. They found two cows or bulls under one of the rooms, as well as an unusually-positioned human skeleton.

    The person’s arms were stretched out to the side, and a rope was tied around their knees.

    Researchers will continue to probe the city to learn more about its history.

    They think that further excavations into a cemetery to the north of the settlement will uncover tombs that could be home to vast amounts of treasure.


    Archaeologists discover ‘world’s oldest brewery’ - 22,400 litres of beer at a time'

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    Egypt&rsquos tourism ministry has this weekend confirmed the remarkable discovery was found by a team of archaeologists at the Abydos funerary site, in the country's southern section. The ministry wrote in a statement: &ldquoThe joint Egyptian-American archaeological mission, headed by Dr Matthew Adams of New York University, and Dr Deborah Vischak of Princeton University, working in North Abydos, Sohag, has uncovered what is believed to be the oldest high-production brewery in the world.&rdquo

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    The department also quoted the secretary-general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mostafa Waziry, as suggesting the brewery "likely dates back to the era of King Narmer".

    The joint Egyptian-American archaeological mission [. ] has uncovered what is believed to be the oldest high-production brewery in the world

    Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

    This ruler was in power more than 5,000 years ago and he has been credited with founding the First Dynasty and unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

    The statement added on its Facebook page: &ldquoIt is worth noting that a number of British archaeologists discovered this plant at the beginning of the 20th century, its location was not precisely determined."

    And the official comment concluded the joint Egyptian-American team "was able to re-locate and uncover its contents&rdquo.

    Archaeology news: Experts have discovered the &lsquoworld&rsquos oldest brewery&rsquo in Egypt (Image: Getty)

    Archaeology news: Egypt&rsquos tourism ministry has this weekend confirmed the remarkable discovery (Image: Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities)

    READ MORE

    According to Mr Waziry, the brewery was constructed with a view for large-scale production of alcohol.

    This is likely due to the existence of eight large areas used as "units for beer production".

    Each sector has been found to contain approximately 40 earthenware pots arranged in two rows.

    A mixture of grains and water used for beer production was heated in the vats, with each basin "held in place by levers made of clay placed vertically in the form of rings".

    Archaeology news: A high-production brewery believed to be the world's "oldest" has been uncovered (Image: Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities)

    Dr Adams, who heads the joint archaeological mission, said studies have revealed beer was produced at a large scale, as much as 22,400 litres made "at a time".

    The statement quoted him as stating the brewery "may have been built in this place specifically to supply the royal rituals that were taking place inside the funeral facilities of the kings of Egypt.

    "Evidence for the use of beer in sacrificial rites was found during excavations in these facilities."

    Evidence of beer-making in ancient Egypt has long been known about, with several discoveries revealing much about past production.

    Trending

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    The Israeli Antiquities Authority announced in 2015 how pottery fragments used by Egyptians to make beer and dating back 5,000 years were discovered at a Tel Aviv building site.

    Abydos, where the latest discovery was unearthed, has yielded many treasures over the years and is famed for its temples, including that of Seti I.

    US archaeologists brought to light Abydos, the earliest known example of an ancient Egyptian solar barge, in 2000.

    This is probably dated back to the first Pharaonic dynasty, approximately 5,000 years ago.

    Archaeology news: Studies have shown beer was produced at a large scale (Image: Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities)

    Archaeology news: Experts have discovered one of the world&rsquos oldest breweries in Egypt (Image: Express)

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    Egypt has announced several major discoveries in recent months which it hopes will spur tourism.

    This sector which has suffered from several knocks, from 2011 Arab Spring uprising to the current coronavirus pandemic.

    Authorities had expected 15 million holidaymakers to visit Egypt in 2020, compared to 13 million the previous year &ndash however COVID-19 has kept tourists at bay.


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    Some of the rooms inside the structure show stunning hieroglyphics that could hold clues about the early inhabitants

    The first goal of the mission was to date the settlement, which was done using hieroglyphic inscriptions found on clay caps of wine vessels. 'Historical references tell us the settlement consisted of three royal palaces of King Amenhotep III, as well as the Empire's administrative and industrial center,' archaeologists shared in a statement

    They unearthed the well-preserved city that had almost complete walls and rooms filled with tools of daily life along with rings, scarabs, colored pottery vessels and mud bricks bearing seals of Amenhotep's cartouche

    WHAT IS EGYPT'S VALLEY OF THE KINGS?

    The Valley of the Kings in upper Egypt is one of the country's main tourist attractions and is the famous burial ground of many deceased pharaohs.

    It is located near the ancient city of Luxor on the banks of the river Nile in eastern Egypt - 300 miles (500km) away from the pyramids of Giza, near Cairo.

    The majority of the pharaohs of the 18th to 20th dynasties, who ruled from 1550 to 1069 BC, rested in the tombs which were cut into the local rock.

    The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period.

    The majority of the pharaohs of the 18th to 20th dynasties, who ruled from 1550 to 1069 BC, rested in the tombs which were cut into the local rock. Pictured are statues of goddesses at the site

    Almost all of the tombs were opened and looted centuries ago, but the sites still give an idea of the opulence and power of the Pharaohs.

    The most famous pharaoh at the site is Tutankhamun, whose tomb was discovered in 1922.

    Preserved to this day, in the tomb are original decorations of sacred imagery from, among others, the Book of Gates or the Book of Caverns.

    These are among the most important funeral texts found on the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs.

    The Valley of the Kings in upper Egypt is one of the country's main tourist attractions. The most famous pharaoh at the site is Tutankhamun, whose tomb was discovered in 1922

    In this part of the site, experts also uncovered large casting molds for making amulets and delicate, decorative objects.

    'This is further evidence of the extensive activity in the city to produce decorations for both temples and tombs,' archaeologists said.

    'All over the excavated areas, the mission has found many tools used in some sort of industrial activity like spinning and weaving.

    'Metal and glass-making slag has also been unearthed, but the main area of such activity has yet to be discovered.'

    Along with structural elements, there are also burials found inside the city's walls.

    Two animal burials were unearthed of either a cow or bull, along with remains of a person found with their arms stretched to the side and tattered rope wrapped around their knees.

    The team is still working on a second part of Aten and although partially covered, they believe it is the administrative and residential district, with larger and well-arranged units

    A number of bricks still litter the landscape that bear seals of King Amenhotep III

    Along with structural elements, there were burials found inside the city's walls. Pictured is either a cow or bull that was found buried in a room of a buildin

    The remains of a person found with their arms stretched to the side and tattered rope wrapped around their knees

    'As history goes, one year after this pot was made, the city was abandoned and the capital relocated to Amarna. But was it? And why? And was the city repopulated again when Tutankhamun returned to Thebes,' said the team in a statement.

    Bricks were found with the name of a built by King Akhenaten at Karnak (pictured), who was King Tutankhamun's father

    'Only further excavations of the area will reveal what truly happened 3500 years ago.

    To the north of the settlement a large cemetery was uncovered, the extent of which has yet to be determined.'

    Tutankhamun's successor, King Ay, built his temple on a site which was later adjoined on its southern side by Rameses III's temple at Medinet Habu.

    Egyptologists believe Ay's temple may formerly have belonged to Tutankhamun as two colossal statues of the young king were found there. The northern part of the temple is still under the sands.

    Amenhotep III inherited an empire that stretched from the Euphrates to Sudan, archaeologists say, and died around 1354 BC.

    He ruled for nearly four decades, a reign known for its opulence and the grandeur of its monuments, including the Colossi of Memnon -- two massive stone statues near Luxor that represent him and his wife.

    'The archaeological layers have laid untouched for thousands of years, left by the ancient residents as if it were yesterday,' the team's statement said.

    Bryan said the city 'will give us a rare glimpse into the life of the Ancient Egyptians at the time where the Empire was at his wealthiest'.

    The team said they were optimistic that further important finds would be revealed, noting they had discovered groups of tombs reached through 'stairs carved into the rock', a similar construction to those found in the Valley of the Kings.

    'The mission expects to uncover untouched tombs filled with treasures,' the statement added.

    A number of artifacts have been discovered inside the city, including ancient pots, jewelry and other trinkets

    There are also large casting molds for making amulets and delicate, decorative objects

    'This is further evidence of the extensive activity in the city to produce decorations for both temples and tombs,' archaeologists said.

    Most of the ancient pottery is still intact after being hidden under the sand for thousands of years

    Aten is said to be more significant than King Tutankhamun's tomb. In 1907, Lord Carnarvon George Herbert asked English archaeologist and Egyptologist Howard Carter to supervise excavations in the Valley of the Kings. On 4 November 1922, Carter's group found steps that led to Tutankhamun's tomb and spent several months cataloguing the antechamber

    King Tutankhamun's tomb is one of the most lavish to be discovered in history, filled with precious objects to aid the young Pharaoh on his voyage to the afterlife. The trove of grave goods included 5,000 items including solid gold funeral shoes, statues, games and strange animals


    Watch the video: The Mystery Of Egypts Pharaoh Queens. Egypts Lost Queens. Timeline (July 2022).


    Comments:

    1. Nagar

      Let's try to be sensible.

    2. Vudogul

      Also what in that case it is necessary to do?

    3. Lennard

      Do you consider insignificant?

    4. Shaktilrajas

      It is similar to it.



    Write a message