The story

HMS Emperor

HMS Emperor


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HMS Emperor

HMS Emperor was a Ruler class escort carrier that took part in operations off Norway and in the Mediterranean in 1944 and with the East India Fleet during 1945.

1943

In the third quarter of 1943 the Emperor was being fitted out to operate high-performance fighters in support of assault forces in the Far East. In the event she didn't reach the Far East until 1945, instead spending 1944 operating off Norway and then in the Mediterranean.

On 30 October 1943 the 7th Naval Fighter Wing was formed with six squadrons, two each for the Emperor, Pursuer and Searcher.

1944

On 3 April 1944 the Emperor took part in Operation Tungsten, the most successful of a series of Fleet Air Arm attacks on the Tirpitz carried our during 1944. The main strike force came from the fleet carriers Furious and Victorious, while the Emperor acted as a fighter carrier, operating Nos.800 and 804 Squadrons with their Hellcats. The Tirpitz suffered a number of direct hits and was out of service for three months, while 438 of her crew were killed or wounded.

On 26 April the Emperor was part of a force including the Victorious, Furious, Searcher, Pursuer and Striker that attacked a south-bound convoy off Bödö, damaging all four merchant ships and one of the escorts. Five aircraft were lost.

On 6th, 8th, 14th, 15th May and 1 June 1944 aircraft from Victorious, Furious, Searcher, Striker and Emperor took part in a series of naval strikes off the Norwegian coast, sinking or seriously damaging six merchant ships, one escort vessel and two armed trawlers (all five carriers were not involved in all five attacks). Emperor, Searcher and Striker took part in the attack on 8 May, against a northbound convoy off Kristiansund. Emperor and Striker were involved in the attack on 14 May, damaging one ship at Rorvik, north of Trondheim.

These operations off Norway included Operation Potluck, which saw nine officers and men from Emperor, Royalist and Striker win awards and Operation Hoops, which saw seven men from Emperor and Searcher win awards.

In June 1944 Pursuer, Tracker and Emperor provided fighter cover for support groups operating in the south west approaches, protecting the D-Day fleets against the threat of U-boat attack from the French Atlantic ports.

During the period May-July 1944 the Emperor was one of six escort carriers (Vindex, Nairana, Biter, Striker, Emperor and Tracker) that spent a total of 58 days at sea performing normal anti-submarine activities alongside the A/S Escort Groups, which spend much of this period protecting the flanks of the D-Day landings.

On 15 July Khedive, Pursuer, Searcher and Emperor sailed from the UK to join the existing force of escort carriers in the Mediterranean.

In August 1944 Emperor formed part of Task Force 88.1, operating alongside Attacker, Khedive, Pursuer and Searcher during Operation Dragoon, the invasion of the south of France. Hunter and Stalker also formed part of Task Force 88, and between them the British carriers provided 166 fighter aircraft, suffering less than ten percent casualties to enemy action during the active period of the operation, which lasted from 15-23 August. No.800 Squadron operated its Hellcats from the Emperor during the operation.

On 28 August the British escort carriers were released, and sailed to Alexandria for repairs and replenishment. All seven escort carriers were then involved in Operations Outing, Cablegram and Contempt, designed to isolate German garrisons in the Aegean and Dodecanese. These operations began on 25 September, and on 13 October Emperor and Attacker were diverted to support Operation Manna, the occupation of Athens.

On 1 November the Emperor helped support HMS Black Prince during land operations on Milo, having bombarded the island on 25-26 October. A naval party had been landed on the island on 30 October to support existing forces, but German resistance was too stiff, and on 5 November the party was evacuated. Two Dutch naval pilots on the Emperor won awards for their role in the fighting in Greece.

In late November the Emperor left the Mediterranean to return to Newport for a refit.

1945

The Emperor left Newport in March 1945 and sailed to join the East India Fleet, becoming part of No.21 Aircraft Carrier Squadron (along with Attacker, Hunter, Khedive and Stalker. The Emperor reached Ceylon at the end of March, carrying the Hellcats of No.800 Squadron.

Emperor and Khedive were involved in Operation Sunfish during April 1945, providing air support to a fleet that included the battleships Queen Elizabeth and Richelieu. Their aircraft supported a bombardment of Sabang on 11 April, carried out a PR sweep of the area around Port Swettenham, 200 miles north of Singapore, on 14-16 April, before concluding the raid with an attack on Emmahaven (northern Sumatra) and Padang. Nine officers and men from the two carriers won awards for their part in the operation.

Six British escort carriers were involved in Operations Bishop and Dracula, a long-planned amphibious invasion of Rangoon. Emperor formed part of the escort to the main assault convoy, alongside Hunter, Stalker and Khedive. This convoy left port on 30 April, and made an unopposed landing at the start of May. So little opposition was encountered that the carriers were released on 4 May, and carried out a series of attacks on the Tenasserim coast before bad weather intervened on 6 May.

While returning from Operation Bishop a destroyer accompanying the Shah and Empress detected radio messages from the Japanese heavy cruiser Haguro. These transmissions ended before any strike could be launched, and on 9 May the carriers returned to port.

While this close encounter was underway Japanese signals were intercepted and broken. This revealed that the cruiser Haguro would be returning to sea to travel to Port Blair on the Andaman Islands to cover the evacuation fo the garrison, staying there for the night of 12-13 May and then returning to Singapore. Shah, Empress, Khedive and Hunter put back to sea as Force 61 in an attempt to intercept the cruiser (Operation Dukedom). This time the Japanese were caught. Aircraft from No.851 Squadron attacked the cruiser on 15 May, although without inflicting any insignificant damage. On the following day the destroyers of Force 63 caught the cruiser and hit her with a number of torpedoes. The Haguro apparently escaped from the trap, but sank on the following day.

From 5-11 July Ameer and Emperor provided fighter cover for a minesweeping operation off Car Nicobar (Operation Collie). During this period aircraft from the carriers made attack on nearby targets, including Nancowry (Nicobar Islands) on 7 July and Kotaraja (Northern Sumatra) and Ldonga on 11 July. Seven aircraft were lost during these attacks, but seven of the pilots were rescued. Three aircrew officers from the Royal Netherlands Navy won awards while attached to the Emperor during this operation.

On 10 August a fleet including the escort carriers Ameer, Emperor, Empress, Khedive and Shah left Trincomalee to attack airfields and shipping in the Penang and Medan areas. The Japanese surrender came before the attack was carried out, and the fleet returned to harbour on 15 August.

When the war ended the British were close to carrying out a major invasion of Malaya and Singapore, Operation Zipper. It was decided to conduct this operation as if it were an opposed landing, and seven escort carriers were allocated to the attacking force. Emperor was to form part of Force 64, with Empress and Khedive, while Attacker, Hunter, Stalker and Begum formed Force 65. The operation began on 10 September and saw 100,000 troops land against minimal resistance, while on 11 September most of the fleet entered Singapore.

The Emperor was returned to the US Navy on 12 February 1946 and was scrapped.

Squadrons

No.800 Squadron became part of the 7th Naval Fighter Wing on 30 October 1943, along with No.804 Squadron, both equipped with the Grumman Hellcat. The two squadrons operated together on Emperor during Operation Tungsten, the attack on the Tirpitz in April 1944, before in June No.804 was disbanded into No.800. No.800 Squadron took part in Operation Dragoon in August 1944, and remained with the Emperor when she moved to the Far East. The squadron took part in the liberation of Rangoon. It was disbanded in December 1945.

No.804 Squadron joined the Emperor with No.800 Squadron, as part of the 7th Naval Fighter Wing. It took part in Operation Tungsten, the attack on Tirpitz, but in June 1944 was disbanded into No.800 Squadron.

Six aircraft from No.808 Squadron were detached to the Emperor during operations to support the liberation of Rangoon

No.888 NAS

No.888 Squadron spent part of 1945 operating its PR Hellcats from the Emperor, one of at least five carriers used by the squadron.

No.1700 NAS

No.1700 Squadron was formed as an amphibian bomber-reconnaissance equipped with the Walrus and Sea Otter. It travelled to the Far East on Khedive between 8 January and 8 February 1945 and then dispersed onto Stalker, Hunter, Emperor, Ameer, Attacker, Shah and Khedive, performing mine-sweeping and search and rescue duties. It returned to shore bases at the end of the war.

Displacement (loaded)

11,400t standard
15,390t deep load

Top Speed

18kts

Range

27,500 miles at 11 knots

Length

495ft 3in-496ft 8in oa

Armaments

18-24 aircraft
Two 5in/38 US Mk 12 in two single mountings
Sixteen 40mm Bofors guns in eight double mountings
Twenty seven to thirty five 20mm cannon

Crew complement

646

Launched

7 October 1942

Completed

6 August 1943

To USA

1946


The Emperor was constructed in 1910 by the Collingwood Shipbuilding Co. in Collingwood, Ontario, for the Inland Lines Ltd. of Midland, Ontario. [3] It was launched on December 17, 1910 and assigned registry number 126,654. [4] At 525 feet in length, it was the largest Canadian-built freighter ever built at the time of her launching. [5] The ship had a beam of 56 feet in beam, a depth of 27 feet, [3] with 4641 registered tons and 7031 gross tons. [4] It contained a 1,500 horsepower triple expansion steam engine with two Scotch boilers which powered the ship to a nominal speed of 10 knots. [3] The Emperor was built of steel, with an arch and web frame construction to provide an unobstructed cargo hold with hatches placed every 12 feet. [4] The pilothouse, captain's quarters, and mate's quarters were at the bow of the ship, and the crew's quarters and engine room were aft, with unobstructed deck space between. [4]

Although launched in 1910, the Emperor did not begin its first voyage until April 1911. [4] On its first trip, the ship broke its main shaft in Thunder Bay, Ontario and had to be towed all the way to Detroit for repairs. [4] Also in 1911, the ship overrode its anchor while in the Soo locks, tearing a hole in the bottom and sinking the vessel. [4]

In May, 1916, the ship was sold to the Canada Steamship Lines Ltd. [4] It was involved in some additional minor incidents, including the death of a crew member who fell into the hold in 1918, groundings in 1926 and 1937, and the loss of a rudder in 1936. [4]

The Emperor left Thunder Bay, Ontario on the night of June 3, 1947, laden with 10,429 tons of iron ore. [3] [4] [6] At about midnight, the captain turned the ship over to the first mate, who had been in charge of loading cargo only hours earlier. [3] It is likely that fatigue contributed to the mate's failure to catch the error in the ship's heading. [3] At 4:15 on the morning of June 4, the Emperor ran aground [3] on the north side of Canoe Rocks, on the northeast end of Isle Royale. [7] The ship sank within 30 minutes, killing twelve crewmembers, [5] including both the captain and the first mate. [3] A Coast Guard cutter was nearby, and the remaining crewmembers were rescued 30 minutes later. [3]

Search and rescue operations were begun shortly thereafter, but no more survivors were found. [4] Some dives were made to the wreck to locate remains of the crew, but no salvage operations were attempted. [4] The wreck of this ship is a significant event in the history of Thunder Bay, Ontario. [5]

In 1975, divers discovered the well preserved remains of one crew member entombed within the stern. [4] The body was missing its eyes, nose, and arms from the elbow down the clothes, hair, and facial features all remained intact, however. [8] In order to deter potential curiosity seekers, the body was later scuttled off the end of the stern. [8]

The Emperor quickly became an attraction to sport divers. [4] There is some detritus located near the site from the 1910 stranding of the SS Dunelm. [4] The wreckage is essentially intact, with damage to the bow, but an intact prop, engine room, and numerous cabins. [7] It sits in 25 to 175 feet of water, [7] with the bow sitting higher than the stern. [3] Two dive buoys are available for mooring, one at each end of the ship. [3] The Emperor is the most popular wreck to dive in the Isle Royale National Park, with over 350 dives made in 2009 out of 1062 dives made to wrecks in the park. [9]


HMS Emperor (D98)

Aluksen valmisti Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation Seattlessa kauppalaivana, jonka Yhdysvaltain laivasto lunasti muutettavaksi saattuetukialukseksi nimellä USS Pybus. Köli laskettiin 23. kesäkuuta 1942. Alus laskettiin vesille 7. lokakuuta ja valmistui 31. toukokuuta 1943 Puget Soundin laivastontelakalla. Yhdysvaltain laivasto otti aluksen palvelukseen samana päivänä. Pybus poistettiin palveluksesta 6. elokuuta ja siirrettiin samana päivänä Kuninkaalliselle laivastolle, joka otti sen palvelukseen nimellä HMS Emperor.

Alus liitettiin 20. elokuuta Halifaxissa saattueeseen HX253. Se saapui 3. syyskuuta Clydeen, josta se siirrettiin 7. syyskuuta telakalle Belfastiin. Aluksen järjestelmät muutettiin Kuninkaallisen laivaston mukaisiksi. Muun muassa polttoainejärjestelmän muutos todettiin tarpeelliseksi HMS Dasherin tuhouduttua. [1]

Joulukuussa alus palautettiin palvelukseen, minkä jälkeen sille siirrettiin 20 kappaletta 800 ja 804 laivueiden Hellcattia. Tammikuussa 1944 aluksen miehistö oli koulutettavana ennen saattuepalveluksen aloittamista. [1]

Maaliskuussa alus liitettiin Kotilaivastoon, minkä vuoksi se siirtyi 18. maaliskuuta Scapa Flowhun. Alus suojasi 30. maaliskuuta HMS Searcherin, HMS Pursuerin ja HMS Fencerin sekä Kotilaivastosta operaatio Tungsteniin määrätyn osaston kanssa saattuetta JW58 Norjan rannikolla piileksivää Saksan laivaston taistelulaiva Tirpitziltä. Alus erkani 3. huhtikuuta saattueesta hyökkäysosaston mukana ja aloitti 5. huhtikuuta kotimatkan Scapa Flowhun. [1]

Alus lähti 21. huhtikuuta Scapa Flow'sta seuraavaan Tirpitzin vastaiseen iskuun (operaatio Planet), joka viivästyi 24. huhtikuuta heikon sään vuoksi ja peruutettiin seuraavana päivänä. Emperor osallistui 26. huhtikuuta alkaen Norjan rannikolla Bodon alueen meriliikenteen häirintään operaatio Ridge Ablessa, jossa upotettiin kolme kauppa-alusta ja vaurioitettiin neljättä. [1]

Emperor, Searcher ja HMS Striker hyökkäsivät 8. toukokuuta Kristiansundin meriliikennettä vastaan operaatio Hoopsissa. Osasto tuhosi viisi saksalaista lentokonetta menettäen kaksi Hellcattia sekä vaurioittivat partioalus V5704:ää sekä sen suojaamaa saattuetta. Alus osallistui 14. toukokuuta iskuun meriliikennettä vastaan Rörvikissä (operaatio Potluck) ja seuraavana päivänä Stadlandetissa (operaatio Baker). Näissä operaatioissa ei upotettu aluksia. [1]

Osasto palasi 16. toukokuuta Scapa Flowhun. Emperor siirrettiin 20. toukokuuta läntisen reitin alaisuuteen, missä se aloitti 23. toukokuuta Atlantin saattueiden suojaamisen. Alus suojasi tuosta päivästä kuun loppuun saakka yhdistettyjä saattueita OS78/KMS52 sekä SL158/MKS49. Kesäkuussa alus vapautui Atlantin saattueiden suojaamisesta, minkä jälkeen se siirtyi lounaisen reitin alueelle tukemaan sukellusveneiden torjuntaa suojattaessa Normandian rannikolle maihinnousevaa osastoa. Alus palasi operaatiosta vapauduttuaan Atlantin saattueiden suojaksi. [1]

Heinäkuussa alus siirrettiin Välimerelle tukikohtanaan Malta, jonne se saapui 25. heinäkuuta. Aluksen lentoyksiköitä vahvennettiin 700 laivueen Walrus-lentoveneellä. Alus valmistautui Välimeren laivaston mukana Etelä-Ranskaan tehtävään maihinnousuun. Se liittyi elokuun alussa TG88.1:een, jossa olivat risteilijät HMS Royalist ja HMS Delhi sekä saattuetukialukset HMS Attacker, HMS Khedive, Searcher ja Pursuer. Osasto jatkoi harjoittelua läntisen Välimeren alueella. [1]

Alus suojasi 15. elokuuta maihinnousua sillanpään alueella sekä tuki maihinnousua ilmarynnäköin. Aluksen koneet tekivät kaikkiaan 42 lentosuoritusta. Seuraavana päivänä koneiden suoritusmäärä oli 40. Sen ja Khediven koneet iskivät 17. elokuuta Port Crossiin. Kahden seuraavan päivän aikana aluksen koneiden lentosuoritusten määrä väheni iskettäessä vetäytyviä saksalaisjoukkoja. Alus siirtyi 20. elokuuta täydennettäväksi Maddalenaan. Alus palasi seuraavana päivänä maihinnousualueelle aloittaen iskut Rhônen laaksoon, mitkä osoittautuivat menestyksekkäiksi. Alus palasi 24. elokuuta Maddalenaan TG88.1 mukana. Tähän mennessä aluksen koneet olivat tehneet 252 lentosuoritusta, joissa oli menetetty 11 lentokonetta. Se vapautettiin 27. elokuuta operaatiosta, minkä jälkeen se palasi Välimeren laivaston alaisuuteen. [1]

Alus määrättiin Egeanmerelle tukemaan alueen saarten takaisin valtausta. Se siirtyi elokuun lopulla Aleksandriaan, jonne se saapui 2. syyskuuta. Alus lähti 14. syyskuuta Aleksandriasta operaatio Outing 1:een, jossa sen tuli toimia ilmasuojana estettäessä saksalaisten saarten evakuointi. Alus palasi 21. syyskuuta Aleksandriaan. Alus lähti 30. syyskuuta Aleksandriasta operaatio Outing 2:een, josta se palasi 4. lokakuuta. Alus lähti 8. lokakuuta uudelleen Egeanmerelle, jossa se tuki 11. lokakuuta Kreikan takaisinvaltauksen alkua Salonikissa. Alus palasi seuraavana päivänä Aleksandriaan hyökäten matkalla Rhodoksen saksalaiskohteisiin. [1]

Alus lähti 13. lokakuuta Aleksandriasta Force 120:n mukana Ateenan miehittämiseksi (operaatio Manna), jonka aikana sen koneiden tuli ehkäistä mahdolliset ilmaiskut osastoa vastaan. Alukselle siirrettiin 19. lokakuuta Khioksella vangittuja saksalaisia. Alus määrättiin 26. lokakuuta tukemaan Miloksen takaisin valtausta (operaatio Contempt). Aluksen koneet toimivat tulenjohtajina sekä ilmatukena. Alus jatkoi alueen takaisin valtauksen tukemista marraskuun ennen siirtoaan takaisin kotimaahan huoltoon. Alus lähti 15. marraskuuta Gibraltarille suojanaan Puolan laivaston hävittäjä ORP Garland. Se saapui joulukuussa Newportiin, jossa se siirrettiin telakalle huollettavaksi sekä valmisteltaessa aluksen siirtoa Itäiseen laivastoon. [1]

Tammikuussa 1945 alus palautettiin palvelukseen, minkä jälkeen se vastaanotti 800 laivueen ennen lähtöään Välimeren kautta Trincomaleehen 21. lentotukialuslaivueeseen. Se saapui 25. maaliskuuta Colomboon liittyen Itäisessä laivastossa HMS Begumin, HMS Empressin, HMS Shahin, HMS Ameerin, Khediven, HMS Slingerin ja HMS Speakerin muodostamaan osastoon. [1]

Alus osallistui operaatio Sunfishin Etelä-Malesian satamien valokuvaustiedustelulentoihin. Se liitettiin Force 63:een, joka lähti 8. huhtikuuta Trincomaleesta Andamaaneille ja Sumatralle. Osaston alukset tankattiin 12. huhtikuuta Force 70:n tankkereilta. Aluksen koneet lensivät 14. huhtikuuta tiedustelulentoja Penangiin Port Swettenhamiin ja Port Dicksoniin ja osallistuivat 16. huhtikuuta ilmahyökkäykseen Emmahaveniin, jossa upotettiin sukellusveneiden emälaiva (CH-7) sekä vaurioitettiin rahtialusta. Alus palasi 20. huhtikuuta laivaston mukana Trincomaleehen. [1]

Emperor lähti 23. huhtikuuta laivaston mukana Akyabiin. Laivueen tehtävänä oli tarjota ilmasuoja Rangoonin maihinnousujoukoille (operaatio Dracula). Alus suojasi 27.-30. huhtikuuta maihinnousulaivastoa ja se suojasi 1. toukokuuta alkaen varsinaista maihinnousua, kunnes se vapautettiin 4. toukokuuta operaatiosta. Alus siirtyi laivueen mukana häiritsemään Burman rannikkomerenkulkua Merguin ja Port Victorian välillä. [1]

Alus aloitti 7. toukokuuta laivueen mukana paluumatkan Trincomaleehen, jonne saavuttiin 9. toukokuuta. Se liitettiin seuraavana päivänä Force 61:een, joka perustettiin torjumaan Andamaaneille matkannutta japanilaista laivasto-osastoa. Alus lähti osaston mukana torjumaan mahdollista maihinnousua (operaatio Dukedom). Osasto tankattiin 13. toukokuuta ja Emperor irrotettiin seuraavana päivänä laivueen mukana osastosta etsimään japanilaisia. Se palasi 21. toukokuuta Trincomaleehen. [1]

Emperor ja Shah suojasivat heinäkuussa 6. miinanraivaajalaivuetta Nikobaareilla. Lisäksi alusten koneet tekivät ilmahyökkäyksen Pohjois-Sumatran lentotukikohtiin (operaatio Collie). Osasto palasi 14. heinäkuuta Trincomaleehen. Alus lähti 15. elokuuta laivaston mukana tukemaan Malesian maihinnousua (operaatio Zipper), jota viivytettiin Japanin antautumisneuvottelujen vuoksi ja lopulta peruutettiin. Osasto saapui 28. elokuuta Penangiin, josta se siirtyi 9. syyskuuta maihinnousualueelle. Alus siirtyi seuraavana päivänä laivueen mukana Singaporeen. [1]

Alus lähti 30. lokakuuta Colombon ja Bombayn kautta kotimaahan, jonne se saapui 4. joulukuuta. Alus poistettiin Clydessä palveluksesta ja sen varastot tyhjennettiin. Alukselta poistettiin tammikuussa 1946 Plymouthissa brittiläiset laitteet, minkä jälkeen se lähti 23. tammikuuta Yhdysvaltoihin. Alus palautettiin 12. helmikuuta Norfolkissa Yhdysvaltain laivastolle, joka myi sen 15. toukokuuta romutettavaksi Patapsco Scrap Company Baltimoreen Marylandiin. [1]


Identity

By the start of the seventies, West Indians were a familiar and established part of the British population, and they had achieved more than mere survival. One indication of their effect on British life is the Notting Hill Carnival. the carnival took place in the same streets where West Indians had been attacked and pursued by baying crowds, but it began as a celebration, a joyous all-inclusive testimony to the pleasure of being alive. As it developed, it became clear that here was a British festival where everyone was welcome, and everyone who wished to had a part to play.

Throughout the seventies, the children of the first wave of post-war Caribbean migrants began to develop a 'black culture' which is now part of a black British style shared by Africans, Asians and white young people alike.

The people of the Windrush, their children and grandchildren have played a vital role in creating a new concept of what it means to be British. To be British in the present day implies a person who might have their origins in Africa, the Caribbean, China, India, Greece, Turkey or anywhere else in the spectrum of nations.

The now-familiar debate about identity and citizenship was sparked off when the first Caribbeans stepped off the Windrush. Alongside that debate came the development of arguments about the regions within the United Kingdom - Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The British national self-image has been thoroughly remodelled in a very short time. Seen against the deadly agonies associated with ethnic conflicts in other European countries, Britain offers the example of a nation, which can live comfortably with a new and inclusive concept of citizenship. In a sense the journey of the Windrush has never ended.


The Emperor Caligula

Caligula was not quite 25 years old when he took power in 37 A.D. At first, his succession was welcomed in Rome: He announced political reforms and recalled all exiles. But in October of 37, a serious illness unhinged Caligula, leading him to spend the remainder of his reign exploring the worst aspects of his nature.

Caligula lavished money on building projects, from the practical (aqueducts and harbors) to the cultural (theaters and temples) to the downright bizarre (requisitioning hundreds of Roman merchant ships to construct a 2-mile floating bridge across the Bay of Bauli so he could spend two days galloping back and forth across it). In 39 and 40 he led military campaigns to the Rhine and the English Channel, where he eschewed battles for theatrical displays, commanding his troops to “plunder the sea” by gathering shells in their helmets).

His relationships with other individuals were turbulent as well. His biographer Suetonius quotes his oft-repeated phrase, “Remember that I have the right to do anything to anybody.” He tormented high-ranking senators by making them run for miles in front of his chariot. He had brazen affairs with the wives of his allies and was rumored to have incestuous relationships with his sisters.

Caligula was tall, pale and so hairy that he made it a capital offense to mention a goat in his presence. He worked to accentuate his natural ugliness by practicing terrifying facial expressions in a mirror. But he literally wallowed in luxury, allegedly rolling around in piles of money and drinking precious pearls dissolved in vinegar. He continued his childhood games of dress-up, donning strange clothing, women’s shoes and lavish accessories and wigs�ger, according to his biographer Cassius Dio, “to appear to be anything rather than a human being and an emperor.”


Napoleon’s Marriages and Children

In 1796, Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais (1763-1814), a stylish widow six years his senior who had two teenage children. More than a decade later, in 1809, after Napoleon had no offspring of his own with Empress Josephine, he had their marriage annulled so he could find a new wife and produce an heir. In 1810, he wed Marie Louise (1791-1847), the daughter of the emperor of Austria. The following year, she gave birth to their son, Napoleon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte (1811-1832), who became known as Napoleon II and was given the title king of Rome. In addition to his son with Marie Louise, Napoleon had several illegitimate children.


Book/Printed Material The history of Genghizcan the Great, first emperor of the antient Moguls and Tartars

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Huangdi

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Huangdi, Wade-Giles Huang-ti (Chinese: “Yellow Emperor”), formally Xuanyuan Huangdi, third of ancient China’s mythological emperors, a culture hero and patron saint of Daoism.

Huangdi is reputed to have been born about 2704 bc and to have begun his rule as emperor in 2697. His legendary reign is credited with the introduction of wooden houses, carts, boats, the bow and arrow, and writing. Huangdi himself is credited with defeating “barbarians” in a great battle somewhere in what is now Shanxi—the victory winning him the leadership of tribes throughout the Huang He (Yellow River) plain. Some traditions also credit him with the introduction of governmental institutions and the use of coined money. Huangdi’s wife was reputed to have discovered sericulture (silk production) and to have taught women how to breed silkworms and weave fabrics of silk.

Huangdi is held up in some ancient sources as a paragon of wisdom whose reign was a golden age. He is said to have dreamed of an ideal kingdom whose tranquil inhabitants lived in harmonious accord with the natural law and possessed virtues remarkably like those espoused by early Daoism. On waking from his dream, Huangdi sought to inculcate these virtues in his own kingdom, to ensure order and prosperity among the inhabitants. Upon his death he was said to have become an immortal.


Early life

Aurangzeb was the third son of the emperor Shah Jahān and Mumtaz Mahal (for whom the Taj Mahal was built). He grew up as a serious-minded and devout youth, wedded to the Muslim orthodoxy of the day and free from the royal Mughal traits of sensuality and drunkenness. He showed signs of military and administrative ability early these qualities, combined with a taste for power, brought him into rivalry with his eldest brother, the brilliant and volatile Dārā Shikōh, who was designated by their father as his successor to the throne. From 1636 Aurangzeb held a number of important appointments, in all of which he distinguished himself. He commanded troops against the Uzbeks and the Persians with distinction (1646–47) and, as viceroy of the Deccan provinces in two terms (1636–44, 1654–58), reduced the two Muslim Deccan kingdoms to near-subjection.

When Shah Jahān fell seriously ill in 1657, the tension between the two brothers made a war of succession seem inevitable. By the time of Shah Jahān’s unexpected recovery, matters had gone too far for either son to retreat. In the struggle for power (1657–59), Aurangzeb showed tactical and strategic military skill, great powers of dissimulation, and ruthless determination. Decisively defeating Dārā at Samugarh in May 1658, he confined his father in his own palace at Agra. In consolidating his power, Aurangzeb caused one brother’s death and had two other brothers, a son, and a nephew executed.


HMS Emperor - History

by Lt Cdr Geoffrey B Mason RN (Rtd) (c) 2005

HMS ATTACKER (D 02) - Attacker-class Escort Aircraft Carrier
including Convoy Escort Movements

ATTACKER-Class Escort Aircraft Carrier obtained under US/UK Land Lease Agreement. The ship was under construction at San Francisco by Western Pipe and Steel Corporation for the Ithanian Steamship Company and had been laid down on 7th April 1941 as Yard No.62. She was launched on 27th September 1941 as STEEL ARTISAN and requisitioned by the US Navy on 26th December 1941 for conversion as an auxiliary aircraft carrier to be named USS BARNES (AVG7). She was later selected, with nine others of this Class for transfer to the RN. Design changes made were based on the experience gained with the earlier ARCHER Class and included a larger hangar. Propulsion machinery consisted of two steam turbines driving a single shaft instead of Diesel engines used for previous ships. Her build was completed on 30th September 1942 when the ship was formally transferred to the RN as HMS ATTACKER. This name had not previously been used for an RN warship.

B a t t l e H o n o u r s

SALERNO 1943 - ATLANTIC 1943-44 - SOUTH FRANCE 1944 - AEGEAN 1944

Badge: On a Field Blue, a Ram in the act of butting Proper.

( Note: This was introduced after WW2 see Post War Notes)

D e t a i l s o f W a r S e r v i c e

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search

September Contractors trials

30th Build completion and commissioned as HMS ATTACKER.

Commanding Officer Captain W W P Shirley- Tolliaon , RN.

October Harbour Acceptance trials and storing.

November Embarked SWORDFISH aircraft and personnel.

12th Commenced Sea Trials including Deck landings. off San Francisco.

9th Took passage from San Francisco to Norfolk Va .

Carried out flying trials with four SWORDFISH aircraft of 838 Squadron whilst on

22nd Transit of Panama Canal.

January Arrived at Norfolk , Va after calls at Curacoa and Jamaica during passage.

to Work-up in continuation off Norfolk.

February Passage to Jamaica

March Embarked four SWORDFISH aircraft and personnel of 840 Squadron.

Took passage to UK with Convoy CV1 from Jamaica.

Provided air cover for convoy during passage.

( Note: Convoy Identity to be confirmed

2nd Detached from convoy on arrival in Clyde and took passage to Liverpool.

10th Taken in hand for modifications to suit RN use.

Fitting British 4in gun in place of US 5in mounting.

Modification of petrol distribution system. as carried out in all US built

CVE after the loss of HMS DASHER following an explosion in 1943.)

May Refit and modification at Liverpool in continuation.

15th Deployed in Clyde area for aircraft trials and exercises.

886 Squadron and 879 Squadron SEAFIRE aircraft and personnel embarked.

July Clyde deployment in continuation.

Nominated for service to Mediterranean.

( Note: British Type 79B radar for aircraft warning and Type 272 for warning of

surface targets were fitted during this period.)

3rd Took passage to Mediterranean with HM Escort Aircraft Carrier STALKER.

10th Deployed in Mediterranean.

Allocated for duty with Force V, Support Carrier Task Force during the planned

landings on Italian mainland at Salerno (Operation AVALANCHE)

September SEAFIRE aircraft and personnel of 886 Squadron were also embarked.

5th Arrived at Malta for AVALANCHE deployment.

Joined HM Escort Aircraft Carriers BATTLER, HUNTER, STALKER in Task Force 88.

( Note: Other ships in TF88 were HM Cruisers EURYALUS, SCYLLA and CHARYBDIS

with HM Destroyers CLEVELAND, HOLCOMBE, ATHERSTONE, LIDDESDALE,

FARNDALE, CALPE Polish destroyers ORP SLAZAK and ORP KRAKOWIAK.)

8th Provided sir cover during passage of assault convoy from Malta

9th Provided air cover during assault landings at Salerno.

( Note: HMS ULSTER QUEEN, converted for use as a Fighter Direction Ship was used for

control of aircraft during the landings.

10th Retained off Beach Head instead of planned withdrawal due to delay in provision of airfield

(Note: Enemy air attacks on the anchorage include use of radio controlled bombs for the first

time in the Mediterranean theatre. See above references.)

11th Deployed off Beach Head.

12th Support of shore operations in continuation

10 sorties Flown including one in which enemy aircraft was engaged and possibly

13th Released from AVALANCHE and took passage to Palermo with Force V.

( Note: High accident rate during landings reduced number of aircraft available for transfer

For details see ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY by C Barnett and the Naval

16th Took passage to Gibraltar when Force V was disbanded.

30th Part of escort from Gibraltar for military convoy MKF24 and provided air cover during passage

October Nominated for further conversion for use as an Assault Carrier.

7th Detached from MKF24 on arrival in Clyde and took passage to Rosyth for refit.

( Note: Ship was required for future landing operations.)

Squadron aircraft and personnel disembarked.

10th Taken in hand for refit by HM Dockyard.

( Note: Improved facilities were provided in Operations Room for the command and control during

assault operations. See RADAR AT SEA by D Howse .)

November On completion of post refit trials took passage from) Rosyth to Clyde.

December Deployed in Clyde area for work-up and flying exercises.

January Clyde deployment in continuation.

22nd Sustained no damage when HM Escort Aircraft Carrier CHASER dragged her anchor in Clyde

during gale and collided with ship.

24th Sustained damage when HM Escort Aircraft Carrier FENCER dragged anchor in Clyde

during gale conditions and collided with ship.

February Repair arranged in Liverpool shipyard and disembarked aircraft.

9th Taken in hand for repair in Alexandra Dock.

16th On completion of repair resumed training exercises in Clyde and re-embarked the aircraft of

( Note: 886 Squadron had been allocated for support of landings in Normandy .)

31st At Belfast for Leave Period.

17th Clyde training deployment in continuation.

Nominated for service with Home Fleet with HMS HUNTER and HMS STALKER in support

of attack on Norwegian coast shipping.

30th Sailed to join Home Fleet at Scapa Flow for Operation HOOPS.

( Note: HMS STALKER and HMS HUNTER were also to take part in this planned attacks on

Norwegian coast shipping which was cancelled )

May Deployment with Home Fleet changed and transferred to Mediterranean.

14th Sailed from Liverpool as part of escort for Convoys OS177/KMS51 and provided air cover

during passage of convoy to Gibraltar.

Deployed in Mediterranean for defence of convoys in western Mediterranean.

June Convoy defence deployment in continuation.

July Nominated for support of allied landings in south France

Aircraft disembarked during Self Maintenance Period at Algiers.

(See INVASION OF THE SOUTH OF FRANCE (HMSO).)

On completion re-embarked Squadron and took passage to Malta to join Carrier Force TF88.1).

( Note: TF88 also included HM Escort Aircraft Carriers EMPEROR, KHEDIVE,

SEARCHER, PURSUER, HM Cruisers ROYALIST, DELHI screened by five RN

destroyers and one Greek destroyer)

August Carried out exercises off Malta prior to landings in South France

( Note: Task Group 88.1 was to provide fighter Protection, spotting aircraft and close support

during landings.. See above reference.)

15th Arrived in Assault area and commenced flying operations.

( Note: Sailing delayed for two hours by steering defect.)

Deployed in position south of Beach Head and carried out air attacks and duties as required by

( Note: Loss of four aircraft during deck landings to be confirmed..)

Retired to south of area after nightfall.

16th DRAGOON Support in continuation.

to Sorties included strike against coastal defences, bombardment spotting for HM Cruiser

18th AURORA and reconnaissance missions. See above reference.

19th Took passage with TF88.1 to Maddalena to refuel and rearm

22nd Resumed flying operations off Beach Head with ships of TF88.1 in position south of Marseilles.

Carried out air strikes as required.

24th Returned to Maddalena with ships of TF88.1

28th Released from DRAGOON and returned to RN control by CinC Mediterranean.

Took passage to Alexandria.

30th Joined British Aegean Force for support of operations to occupy islands in Eastern Mediterranean .

2nd Arrived at Alexandria.

14th Sailed from Alexandria to relieve HMS HUNTER deployed for air attacks on Crete

and Rhodes . (Operation OUTING).

15th Joined HM Escort Carriers PURSUER, EMPEROR, SEARCHER and KHEDIVE deployed as

16th Carried out air strikes and reconnaissance flights

19th Carried out dive-bombing of shipping in harbour at Rhodes,

20th On completion of OUTING returned to Alexandria for replenishment.

( Note: 400 sorties were made during attacks on transport and shipping in Rhodes .)

27th Deployed in Aegean for attacks on shipping (Operation OUTING II.)

1st OUTING II deployment in continuation

to (Note: 102 Sorties flown included strikes on shore positions, bombardment spotting for

4th HM Cruiser ROYALIST and tactical reconnaissance.)

5th Returned to Alexandria to replenish

Nominated for support of British landings in Aegean and Greece (Operation MANNA)

13th Sailed With HMS STALKER, HMS EMPEROR, HMS ROYALIST and two destroyers for

18th Returned to Alexandria.

23rd Carrier out air strikes on shore targets

26th Deployed for support of landings on Mitylene

29th Deployed for support of landings on Piskopi .

Released from support of military operations in eastern Mediterranean.

(For details see Military History of Mediterranean operations.)

30th Returned to Alexandria.

31st Took passage with HMS HUNTER and HMS STALKER to return to UK.

9th Arrived at Plymouth to give leave prior to service in Eastern Fleet.

10th Under repair by HM Dockyard Devonport.

29th Took passage from Plymouth to Taranto for refit.

December Passage in Mediterranean

6tb Taken in hand for refit at Taranto.

( Note: Squadron personnel were landed and took passage to Egypt in the Italian cruiser

to Nominated for service in 21st Aircraft Carrier Squadron in Ceylon.

1st On completion of post refit trials took passage to Ceylon to join Eastern Fleet.

Embarked 879 Squadron aircraft

( Note: Ship not available for participation in re-occupation of Rangoon .

Not available for operational service due to defects and redeployed.

879 Squadron aircraft landed for service at Katukurinda .

Deployed with HMS HUNTER for the transport of FAA and RAF aircraft from Indian

and South African ports to Ceylon.

June Aircraft transport duties in continuation.

July Required for Fleet service with Squadron.

August Prepared for support of attack on Penang .

8th Took passage with Squadron in Malacca Straits.

11th Operation cancelled and returned to Trincomalee.

( Note: For details of the complex factors affecting British operations and the

delay in execution of landings in Malaya (Operation ZIPPER) See REPORT

BY SEAC TO CHIEFS OF STAFF (HMSO), THE FORGOTTEN FLEET by J Winton,)

14th Returned to Trincomalee and nominated for support of re-occupation of Penang .

15th Sailed with HM Battleship NELSON, HM Cruiser CEYLON , HMS HUNTER and a destroyer

16th Operation JURIST (delayed by Supreme Commander (General MacArthur )

Operation JURIST recommenced and took passage to Penang with HMS NELSON, HMS

CEYLON, three destroyers and two Landing Ships (Infantry) PRINSES BEATRIX

26th At Penang for final surrender which was signed on board HMS NELSON.

2nd Took passage from Penang for Singapore.

4th Passage to Singapore and anchored off-shore over night.

( Note: Diversion to Sabang for re-occupation to be confirmed

See BRITISH INVASION FLEETS by J de Winser .)

11th Took part in ceremonial entry into Singapore with Fleet units prior to formal surrender.

14th Released from Malayan operations and took passage to Trincomalee.

19th Arrived at Trincomalee.

HMS ATTACKER was released from East Indies Fleet service and took passage to UK on 11th Oct with calls at Bombay and Malta arriving in Clyde on 11th December 1945. After Squadron aircraft were disembarked ship Paid-off and majority of ships company left ship which was taken in hand for minor repair in Clyde shipyard.. and embarked aircraft for return to USA. She then collected US troops at Southampton for passage to Norfolk, Va on 9th December arriving on 24th December. On 5th January 1946 the ship was formally returned to the US Navy. and later sold for use as a mercantile/ She traded as ss CASTEL FORTE until 1957 when renamed ss FAIRSKY for passenger freight use. In June 1977 she was damaged when hitting a wreck off Djakarta and had to be beached. Following repair in 1978 she was briefly used again as a Casino and later again used as a mercantile named ss PHILIPPINE TOURIST). In 1979 this ship was seriously damaged by a fire in 1979 and sold in 1980 for breaking-up at Hong Kong.

CONVOY ESCORT MOVEMENTS of HMS ATTACKER

These convoy lists have not been cross-checked with the text above