The story

Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland?

Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland?



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland? (Not just Northern Ireland) I'm specifically interested in datasets that, for each point/area in the UK/Ireland (ideally, at the resolution of a parish, since I'm studying historical deforestation at the parish level), list whether the land was forest, urban, agricultural/cultivated, etc. for the time period 1800-1900.

There are modern versions of these data, e.g. the Corine land cover data, which have been addressed in other questions, but nothing historical.

The Ordnance Surveys supposedly include some data like this for the years 1842 onward, but actually looking at the list of years in which each county was mapped shows that the actual data is mostly much later. https://maps.nls.uk/os/6inch-england-and-wales/


See this meta question for a brief discussion about the suitability of this question for history.SE.


Human geography

Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across locations. [1] It analyzes patterns of human social interaction, their interactions with the environment, and their spatial interdependencies by application of qualitative and quantitative research methods. [2] [3]


Demographic Change

Population change

The world population increased from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion today.

Growth slowed from 2.2% per year 50 years ago to 1.05% per year today.

When and why did the world population grow? And how does rapid population growth come to an end?

World Population Growth

The UN projects that the global population will be 10.8 billion by 2100.

The population growth rate is then expected to be close to zero.

What can we expect for the future? What determines how large or small the world population will be?

Future Population Growth

The global median age increased from 22 years in 1970 to 31 years.

26% of the world are younger than 14 years. 8% are older than 65.

What is the age profile of populations around the world? How did it change and what will the age structure of populations look like in the future?

Age Structure

In some countries gender discrimination leads to skewed sex ratios at birth.

How does the number of men and women differ between countries? And why?

Gender Ratio

Life and death

The global average life expectancy is 73 years.

The global inequality is large.

When and why did the average age at which people die increase and how can we make further progress against early death?

Life Expectancy

5.5 million children younger than five die every year.

The global child mortality rate is 3.9%.

Why are children dying and what can be done to prevent it?

Child and Infant Mortality

The global average fertility rate is 2.5 children per woman.

In the last 50 years this rate has halved.

How does the number of children vary across the world and over time? What is driving the rapid global change?

Fertility Rate

Distribution of the World Population

55% of the world population live in urban areas.

The world population is moving to cities. Why is urbanization happening and what are the consequences?

Urbanization

Health

The global average life expectancy is 73 years.

The global inequality is large.

When and why did the average age at which people die increase and how can we make further progress against early death?

Life Expectancy

5.5 million children younger than five die every year.

The global child mortality rate is 3.9%.

Why are children dying and what can be done to prevent it?

Child and Infant Mortality

303,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes every year.

What could be more tragic than a mother losing her life in the moment that she is giving birth to her newborn? Why are mothers dying and what can be done to prevent these deaths?

Maternal Mortality

The world has seen great improvements in health.

But there are still large inequalities.

An overview of our research on global health.

Global Health

56 million people die every year.

How did the causes of death change over time?

Causes of Death

The global burden of disease is large.

Per year 2.5 billion healthy life years are lost due to diseases, accidents, and premature deaths

How is the burden of disease distributed and how did it change over time?

Burden of Disease

9.6 million people die from cancer every year.

54% are younger than 70 years old.

Cancers are one of the leading causes of death globally. Are we making progress against cancer?

Cancer

An estimated 792 million people have a mental health disorder.

We provide a global overview of the prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, and schizophrenia.

Mental Health

800,000 die from suicide per year.

58% are younger than 50 years old.

Every suicide is a tragedy. But they can be prevented.

Suicide

Health risks

5 million people die prematurely from air pollution each year.

Our overview on both indoor and outdoor air pollution.

Air Pollution

3.4 million people die prematurely from outdoor air pollution every year.

43% are younger than 70 years old.

Outdoor air pollution is one of the world’s largest health and environmental problems.

Outdoor Air Pollution

1.6 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year.

55% are younger than 70 years old.

Indoor air pollution – caused by the burning of firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating – is a major health risk of the world’s poorest.

Indoor Air Pollution

13% of adults are obese, globally.

Obesity is responsible for 4.7 million premature deaths every year.

When did obesity increase? How do rates vary across the world? What is the health impact?

Obesity

8.1 million people die prematurely from smoking every year.

Half are younger than 70 years old.

Tobacco smoking is one of the world’s largest health problems today.

Smoking

2.8 million people die prematurely from alcohol consumption every year.

74% are younger than 70 years old.

Who consumes the most alcohol? How has consumption changed over time? And what are the health impacts?

Alcohol Consumption

11.8 million people die prematurely from drug use every year.

This includes tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use.

Drug use – which includes smoking, alcohol, and illicit drug use is one of the world’s largest health problems today.

Drug Use

590,000 people die prematurely from illicit drug use every year.

42% are younger than 50 years old.

How common is the use and addiction to opioids, cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis? What is the impact?

Opioids, cocaine, cannabis and illicit drugs

Infectious diseases

COVID-19 developed into a global pandemic.

Country-by-country data and research on the pandemic. Updated daily.

Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)

1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year.

84% are younger than 50 years old.

A global epidemic and the leading cause of death in some countries.

HIV / AIDS

620,000 people die from malaria every year.

57% are children younger than 5 years old.

The deadly disease transmitted by mosquitoes is one of the leading causes of death in children. How did we eliminate the disease in some world regions and how can we continue progress against malaria?

Malaria

Humanity has already eradicated one severe disease.

Which ones could we eradicate in our lifetimes and how?

Eradication of Diseases

1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases every year.

One-third are children under five years old.

Diarrheal diseases are one of the leading cause of child deaths while they are largely preventable. How can we continue to make progress against these diseases?

Diarrheal diseases

In the past smallpox killed millions every year.

Humanity eradicated this infectious disease globally. How was this possible?

Smallpox

One generation ago polio paralyzed hundreds of thousands of children every year.

Now the world can possibly eradicate it: polio remains endemic in only 2 countries.

Polio

2.6 million people die from pneumonia every year.

One-third are children younger than five years old.

Pneumonia is the leading cause of death for children younger than 5 years.

Pneumonia

40,000 people die from Tetanus every year.

Half are children under the age of five.

Tetanus is a bacterial infection that leads to painful muscle contractions and possibly death.

Tetanus

Health institutions and interventions

Healthcare funding is essential for good health.

Healthcare is key to make progress against poor health. How is it financed?

Financing Healthcare

Vaccines are key in making progress against infectious diseases and save millions of lives every year.

Vaccination

Food and Agriculture

Nutrition

11% of the world population – 820 million people – are undernourished.

22% of children younger than five are ‘stunted’.

What are the consequences of undernourishment and how can we make progress against hunger and undernourishment?

Hunger and Undernourishment

Around 130 million people died in famines during the last 150 years.

This estimate is based on our historical reconstructions.

In many parts of the world famines have been common in the past. What causes famines? How can famines be averted?

Famines

2,884 kcal per day is the global average food supply per person.

There are large inequalities in food supply across countries.

How had the availability of food changed over time? How does food supply vary across the world today?

Food Supply

Human height gives us an indicator of changes in health and nutrition in the past.

The average height of a population can inform us about the nutrition and living conditions of populations in the past for which we have little other data.

Human Height

An estimated 2 billion people are deficient in essential micronutrients.

Food is not only a source of energy and protein, but also micronutrients – vitamins and minerals – which are essential to good health. Who is most affected by the ‘hidden hunger’ of micronutrient deficiency?

Micronutrient Deficiency

A diverse diet is essential for good nutrition.

There are large inequalities in dietary diversity between countries.

What do people across the world eat?

Diet Compositions

Food prices are important for both consumers and farmers.

Food needs to be affordable for people, and at the same it is a key source of income for one-quarter of the world’s labor force.

Food Prices

13% of adults are obese, globally.

Obesity is responsible for 4.7 million premature deaths every year.

When did obesity increase? How do rates vary across the world? What is the health impact?

Obesity

2.8 million people die prematurely from alcohol consumption every year.

74% are younger than 70 years old.

Who consumes the most alcohol? How has consumption changed over time? And what are the health impacts?

Alcohol Consumption

Food Production

The world produces more than enough food for everyone.

But it's unequally distributed across the world.

How much food do countries produce across the world?

Agricultural Production

26% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from food production.

50% of the world's habitable land is used for agriculture.

What are the environmental impacts of food production? How do we reduce the impacts of agriculture on the environment?

Environmental impacts of food production

Global average cereal yield is 4 tonnes per hectare.

But in many regions yields are much lower.

Increasing the production of crops per area of land is of key importance for food security, living standards, and decreasing humanity’s impact on the environment.

Crop Yields

Meat is an important source of nutrition for people around the world. How quickly is demand growing? And what are the implications for animal welfare and the earth’s environment?

Meat and Dairy Production

Fish and seafood form an important part of people’s diets. How does growing demand affect fish populations? How does production in aquaculture compare with wild catch?

Seafood Production

Agricultural inputs

Once the majority of human labor was dedicated to food production. When and how did this change? What is the global distribution of agricultural labor today?

Employment in Agriculture

How is humanity using the Earth’s land? And how can we decrease our land use so that more land is left for wildlife?

Land Use

The world produces more than 200 million tonnes of fertilizer each year.

Fertilizers supply plants with nutrients that are essential for growth. How important are fertilizers? How does their use vary across the world?

Fertilizers

Pesticides are often used to protect crop yields.

There are large differences in its use across the world.

Pesticides are used to protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects. Where are they used? What is their impact?

Pesticides

Energy and Environment

Explore the diversity of wildlife across the planet. What are species threatened with? What can we do to prevent biodiversity loss?

Biodiversity

Energy

13% of the world do not have access to electricity.

40% do not have access to clean fuels for cooking.

Access to electricity and clean cooking fuels are vital for a good standard of living and good health.

Access to Energy

Global energy production has grown 2.5-fold in the past 50 years.

What energy sources does the world rely on? What is this energy used for? And how does it change over time?

Energy

5% of global primary energy production comes from modern renewable sources

Solar, wind, hydropower, and other renewable energy sources currently account for a small share of global energy. But they’re growing quickly and can play a key role in tackling climate change.

Renewable Energy

86% of global primary energy comes from fossil fuels.

Deaths per TWh range from 2.8 for gas to 24.6 for coal.

Coal, gas and oil were key to industrialization and rising prosperity, but their large impact on health and the climate mean that we should transition away from these sources of energy.

Fossil Fuels

Waste

The use of plastics has many benefits – it is affordable, versatile, resistant, and can help reduce other forms of waste – especially food waste. However, when poorly managed it can pollute the environment and our oceans. Where does the plastic in our oceans come from and what can we do to reduce plastic pollution?

Plastic Pollution

Oil spills can have a large negative impact on the environment.

How often do oil spills happen? How did it change over time?

Oil Spills

Air and Climate

36 billion tonnes of CO₂ are emitted every year.

Who is emitting greenhouse gases? Which countries and which sectors? And what needs to happen to reduce emissions?

CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

5 million people die prematurely from air pollution each year.

Our overview on both indoor and outdoor air pollution.

Air Pollution

3.4 million people die prematurely from outdoor air pollution every year.

43% are younger than 70 years old.

Outdoor air pollution is one of the world’s largest health and environmental problems.

Outdoor Air Pollution

1.6 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year.

55% are younger than 70 years old.

Indoor air pollution – caused by the burning of firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating – is a major health risk of the world’s poorest.

Indoor Air Pollution

Emissions of ozone-depleting gases have fallen by 98%.

But it will take decades for the ozone layer to recover.

The emission of ozone-depleting gases are threatening the earth’s ozone layer. Global collaboration and regulation aims to reduce the emissions. Are these efforts successful?

Ozone Layer

Water

That's 29% of the world population.

Clean and safe water is essential for good health. How did access change over time? Where do people lack access?

Clean Water

That's 60% of the world population.

Access to safe sanitation is essential for reducing deaths from infectious disease, preventing malnutrition and providing dignity. What is the global situation today and how can we make progress?

Sanitation
  • Globally we use 70% of freshwater withdrawals for agriculture 19% in industry and 11% in households.

Freshwater resources across the world are the focus of this entry. How much water do we use? How did it change over time?

Water Use and Stress

Land and Ecosystems

26% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from food production.

50% of the world's habitable land is used for agriculture.

What are the environmental impacts of food production? How do we reduce the impacts of agriculture on the environment?

Environmental impacts of food production

How are forests distributed across the world? How much do we lose to deforestation every year?

Forests and Deforestation

How is humanity using the Earth’s land? And how can we decrease our land use so that more land is left for wildlife?

Land Use
  • Over the last decade the annual number of deaths due to natural disasters was 45,000 globally.

Where and from which disasters do people die? What can we do to prevent deaths from natural disasters?

Natural Disasters

Innovation and Technological Change

Technological progress has been key a key driver of improved living standards.

Technology is a key driver of change that matters for all the big problems that we consider in this publication.

Technological Progress

Technology adoption has been a key driver of improved living conditions.

Technology has been a leading driver of global change – disrupting the way we work, travel, and live. How quickly have different technologies been adopted across the world? Explore global and country-level data and research on technology adoption.

Technology Adoption

Poverty and Economic Development

Public Sector

Government spending has increased significantly, but with large differences across the world.

What do governments spend their financial resources on?

Government Spending

Tax revenues account for more than 80% of total government revenue in about half of the countries in the world.

And for more than 50% in almost every country.

Taxes are the most important source of government revenue. Who is paying how much and how do tax systems differ?

Taxation

How much do different countries spent on their military? How did it change over time?

Military Spending

Healthcare funding is essential for good health.

Healthcare is key to make progress against poor health. How is it financed?

Financing Healthcare

Funding for education is growing across the world, but large gaps still exist.

How is education financed? How much do we spend on it? What are the returns?

Financing Education

Poverty and Prosperity

The world has become much more prosperous, but in some countries incomes remain very low.

All of today’s rich countries were poor in the past – how do poor countries become rich?

Economic Growth

Every tenth person in the world lives on less than $1.90 per day.

Two-thirds of the world population live on less than $10 per day.

The international poverty line of $1.90 per day focuses on the very poorest people on the planet. How did poverty change over time and how can the world win the fight against extreme poverty?

Global Extreme Poverty

Economic Inequality

Many countries have high levels of income inequality.

How are incomes distributed and how and why did the distribution change over time?

Income Inequality

In most countries the gender pay gap has reduced, but inequalities are still large and common.

What is determining the inequality in incomes, jobs, and wealth between men and women?

Economic inequality by gender

Global inequality has fallen but living conditions are still vastly unequal across the world.

Living conditions around the world are vastly unequal and economic differences are a major reason for this. How is this distribution changing?

Global Economic Inequality

Labor

An estimated 17% of children globally work.

Why and where do children work? How did child labor change over time?

Child Labor

Many people have to work long hours with for very low incomes.

How much time do people across the world spend working? How have working hours changed over time, and what do these changes matter for people’s lives? Explore data and research on working hours.

Working Hours
  • Women’s labor force participation is 49% globally with large differences between countries.

What is determining whether women participate in the labor market? How is it changing?

Women’s employment

Corruption

Corruption is a common problem in many countries and sectors.

How common is corruption? What impact does it have? And what can be done to reduce it?

Corruption

Living conditions, Community and Wellbeing

Time is the ultimate limited resource

How do people across the world spend their time? How do daily activities differ across countries, and how do these differences matter for people’s lives? Explore data and research on time use.

Time Use

The institution of marriage is changing quickly

How is the institution of marriage changing? What percentage of marriages end in divorce? Explore global data on marriages and divorces.

Marriages and Divorces

Loneliness is common across the world.

Family and friends are important for our well-being. In this article we explore data on loneliness and social connections, and review available evidence on the link between social connections and well-being.

Loneliness and Social Connections

Life satisfaction and happiness vary widely both within and among countries.

Self-reported life satisfaction differs widely between people and between countries. What explains these differences?

Happiness and Life Satisfaction

Health, education and living standards have increased in recent decades, but more progress is needed.

The HDI is a measure of human development that captures health, education, and income. How does the index vary around the world, and how did it change over time?

Human Development Index (HDI)

An estimated 17% of children globally work.

Why and where do children work? How did child labor change over time?

Child Labor

Many people have to work long hours with for very low incomes.

How much time do people across the world spend working? How have working hours changed over time, and what do these changes matter for people’s lives? Explore data and research on working hours.

Working Hours

55% of the world population live in urban areas.

The world population is moving to cities. Why is urbanization happening and what are the consequences?

Urbanization

Tourism is an important source of income and employment for many countries.

How many travel for tourism? Where do they go?

Tourism

Culture

Misconceptions about past development means many are pessimistic about future progress.

What is people’s outlook on the future – personally and for the world as a whole?

Optimism and Pessimism

Trust levels can vary a lot between countries and groups of society.

Trust is essential for community, wellbeing, and effective cooperation. How does trust vary between different societies and locations and what matters for levels of trust?

Trust

Housing

13% of the world do not have access to electricity.

40% do not have access to clean fuels for cooking.

Access to electricity and clean cooking fuels are vital for a good standard of living and good health.

Access to Energy

That's 29% of the world population.

Clean and safe water is essential for good health. How did access change over time? Where do people lack access?

Clean Water

Homelessness is a problem in countries around the world.

How many are homeless? How did homelessness change over time?

Homelessness

1.6 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year.

55% are younger than 70 years old.

Indoor air pollution – caused by the burning of firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating – is a major health risk of the world’s poorest.

Indoor Air Pollution

Many do not have light at night

Light at night was once expensive everywhere. In some places people are still lacking light at night, while in other places light became extremely cheap.

Light at Night

That's 60% of the world population.

Access to safe sanitation is essential for reducing deaths from infectious disease, preventing malnutrition and providing dignity. What is the global situation today and how can we make progress?

Sanitation

Human rights and Democracy

Why do countries become democratic? What is the impact of democratisation on people’s lives and international relations?

Democracy

Violence against children in various forms has fallen, but still occurs today.

How common is physical and emotional violence against children? How did it change over time?

Violence against children and children’s rights

In most countries the gender pay gap has reduced, but inequalities are still large and common.

What is determining the inequality in incomes, jobs, and wealth between men and women?

Economic inequality by gender

Corruption is a common problem in many countries and sectors.

How common is corruption? What impact does it have? And what can be done to reduce it?

Corruption

Human Rights violations are still common in many countries.

From freedom of the press to racism, this entry presents an overview of quantitative measures of human rights.

Human Rights

Violence and War

War and Peace

  • Over the last decade the annual number of battle-related deaths was 55,000 globally.

Humans are capable of atrocious cruelty – the history of war makes this all too clear. How many died in war? And what are the prospects for making the world more peaceful?

War and Peace

How much do different countries spent on their military? How did it change over time?

Military Spending
  • Over the last decade the annual number of deaths due to terrorism was 22,000 globally.

The attacks of terrorists receive a lot of attention from the media and often dominate the public discourse. How many people die from these attacks and how did it change over time?

Terrorism

The world’s nuclear powers have more than 10,000 nuclear warheads.

The world’s nuclear powers possess in total 10,145 nuclear warheads. These weapons have the capacity to kill hundreds of millions of people directly, and billions due to subsequent effects on agriculture.

Nuclear Weapons

Peacekeeping operations are used in conflict prevention, but are not always successful.

Peacekeeping aims to help countries transition from conflict towards peace. How have peacekeeping operations and forces changed over time? See global data on peacekeeping activities.

Peacekeeping

Targeted killing of specific societal groups have killed millions.

The organized killings targeted at particular groups for their ethnicity, religion or political belief killed many millions.

Genocides

Violence

Violence against children in various forms has fallen, but still occurs today.

How common is physical and emotional violence against children? How did it change over time?

Violence against children and children’s rights

Where are people dying from homicides? How did the homicide rate change over time?

Homicides

Violence was very common in many historical societies.

How common was violence in the distant past?

Ethnographic and Archaeological Evidence on Violent Deaths

Education and Knowledge

Global education has improved over recent decades, but much more progress is possible.

The overview of our research on global education.

Global Education

The share of people with secondary and further education is expected to grow, but unequally across the world.

How are demographic, economic, technological changes affecting the future of global education?

Projections of Future Education

Educational outcomes

Being able to read and write opens up the world of education and knowledge. When and why did more people become literate? How can progress continue?

Literacy

Schools often do not live up to their promise: in many schools children learn very little.

How do learning outcomes differ between countries? How has the quality of education changed over time?

Quality of Education

The returns of education have significant impacts on labour supply and skilled workforces.

What are the social and individual returns to education?

Returns to Education

Access to Education

Many children have very few opportunities in learning before primary education.

Access to education early in life can improve outcomes for the rest of life. How does pre-primary education differ between countries and how did it change over time?

Pre-Primary Education

61 million children of primary school age are not in school.

202 million children of secondary school age are not in school.

How does access to school differ around the world? How does it between boys and girls? And how did it change over time?

Primary and Secondary Education

Globally 34% of those within 5 years of secondary education are enrolled in tertiary education.

When did access to universities and tertiary education increase? How does it differ between countries?

Tertiary Education

Inequality in education

Large inequalities exist in educational opportunities across and within countries.

How did inequality of education change over time? How does access to education differ between girls and boys.

Educational Mobility and Inequality

Inputs to education

Funding for education is growing across the world, but large gaps still exist.

How is education financed? How much do we spend on it? What are the returns?

Financing Education

Many teachers across the world do not receive sufficient training.

A global overview of teaching professionals. How many teachers are there? At what level do they teach? What are their qualifications?

Teachers and Professors

Media

Book publication has been a key driver of knowledge-sharing and education.

Books have been at the center of science and the arts for centuries. Their history and relevance is the focus of this entry.

Books

For many, the internet is now essential for work, finding information, and connecting with others. How did half the world get online in just one generation? And what are the challenges ahead?

Internet

Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone.

Help us do this work by making a donation.

License: All the material produced by Our World in Data, including interactive visualizations and code, are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. All other material, including data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data, is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors.

Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433).


Data sources

The main sources of data on human trafficking globally are based on information provided by identified victims. These are usually collected by a range of different actors, including law enforcement, the judiciary, and non-governmental organizations providing protection and assistance to victims.

Several UN agencies and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have collaborated to produce data sources on the profiles of victims of human trafficking, the prevalence of human trafficking, and on related phenomena such as forced labour and forced marriage.

Operational case data and victim profiles

In the course of protecting and providing services to victims, counter-trafficking actors frequently collect individual-level, operational case data. IOM has been providing direct assistance to victims of human trafficking since the mid-1990s and assists approximately 8,000 victims each year globally. Through its case management activities, the Organization has developed the largest database of victim of trafficking case data in the world, with information on over 55,000 individual cases.

Operational data from counter-trafficking organizations are often highly sensitive and pertain to individuals, which raises a range of privacy and civil liberty concerns where the risk of identifying data subjects can be high and the consequences severe. While many organizations and governments around the world collect data on cases of human trafficking, disaggregated data has not been easily accessible to external stakeholders or has not been frequently shared between relevant actors in the past due to the sensitivity of its content, and data protection and confidentiality considerations.

To overcome these challenges, in 2017, IOM made its own data publicly available online through the Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC), along with combined data from other leading counter-trafficking organizations with significant case-level datasets.

The Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative

The Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC) is the first global data hub on human trafficking, with data contributed by organizations from around the world. The resulting dataset is the largest of its kind globally, with information on over 108,000 individual cases of human trafficking visualized throughout the site, including through an interactive global map. An anonymized version of this dataset is publicly available to download. By putting such data in the public domain, the goal of CTDC is to break down information-sharing barriers and equip the counter-trafficking community with up to date, reliable data on human trafficking. As new data from contributing partners are added, CTDC will continue to expand in scope, featuring new datasets from diverse counter-trafficking actors and disseminating standards on sharing trafficking-case data.

IOM’s Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative has made great progress in overcoming data obstacles, but more work is needed throughout the counter-trafficking community to agree on common standards and methods of data sharing and applicability. Disaggregated case-level data are the most detailed source of information on human trafficking and should thus play a vital part of any meaningful analysis on the phenomenon.

National reporting mechanisms

Another key source of trafficking information is official reports on administrative data compiled by governments (or other central reporting bodies) on human trafficking cases within their national jurisdictions.

UNODC surveys governments on trafficking victims identified in their respective countries for the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, using a common questionnaire with a standard set of indicators, and then aggregates the results. The most recent global report was produced in 2018. In 2016, this exercise produced data on more than 24,000 identified victims of trafficking from 97 governments, a peak compared to the previous years. Data are largely published in the form of total numbers disaggregated by variables such as sex, age, and type of exploitation, wherever possible. In addition to government surveys, UNODC collects official information such as police reports that are available in the public domain, and some information from inter-governmental organisations and NGOs.

Estimating prevalence of human trafficking

There are currently no global or regional estimates of the prevalence of human trafficking.

Some national estimates have been developed, including using human trafficking administrative data:

Multiple Systems Estimation is the methodology used to estimate the total (unidentified and identified) victims of trafficking at country level. This is based on the analysis of the overlap of multiple lists of human trafficking cases provided by different actors in the counter-trafficking field, such as NGOs, law enforcement, other authorities and international organizations. MSE depends upon the existence of various databases of identified victims of human trafficking in the country of implementation. A number of other technical assumptions should also be met. For example, it must be possible for more than one entity recording administrative data to be able to independently identify a victim of trafficking. Researchers developing the method have estimated that it could potentially be used in approximately 50 countries around the world. Initial estimates have already been conducted in several countries, including the UK and the Netherlands.

Relatively few examples of estimates of related forms of exploitation exist:

    - This is a global estimate of the prevalence of the human-trafficking-related crimes of forced labour and forced marriage, produced by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Walk Free Foundation (WFF), in collaboration with IOM. The 2017 report estimates that 40 million people were victims of modern slavery in any given day in 2016. Out of these, approximately 25 million people were in forced labour and another 15 million people were in a forced marriage. Data from IOM’s human trafficking database on sexual exploitation and child exploitation were used for the estimates.
  • Estimating forced labour, forced recruitment and abductions in displacement contexts. IOM is developing a series of comparable estimates on prevalence of forced labour, forced marriage, forced recruitment into armed groups and abductions among Internally Displaced People (IDPs) and their families, in partnership with ILO and WFF. This is a pilot research initiative in three countries with large numbers of IDPs and where IOM has substantial humanitarian operations and suitable sampling frames. The report with the findings, methodology and recommendations will be published in 2020.

Trafficking in humanitarian settings and large-scale migration flows

Humanitarian crises such as those associated with conflicts or natural disasters may exacerbate pre-existing trafficking trends and give rise to new ones. While some forms of trafficking could be a direct result of crises, such as exploitative sexual services demanded by armed groups or the forced recruitment of child soldiers, others are less evident, with traffickers thriving on the widespread human, material, social and economic losses caused by crises and the inability of families and communities to protect themselves and their children.

IOM works to combat trafficking and protect trafficked persons in humanitarian settings. To address the acute need for data for evidence-based programming in these location, IOM has been using its Displacement Tracking Matrix to regularly collect data on risks and issues relevant to human trafficking and exploitation in crises. In addition, IOM with partners is also working to produce prevalence estimates on issues related to human trafficking.

Locations of recent regular data collection with human trafficking indicators include Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh, North-East Nigeria, Ukraine, Central and South American countries. The data gathered during these operations can be used to better understand risks to trafficking, vulnerability to exploitation, gaps in assistance and to identify areas of further research.

IOM, through DTM, also produces primary data on the migrants’ vulnerability to human trafficking, abuse, exploitation and violence on different migration routes, for example on the main migration routes to Europe. Data with trafficking indicators are collected in countries like Italy, Libya, or Greece. Further similar data collection is planned in countries from Central and West Africa, and in Eastern Africa.

IOM produced a report with UNICEF on the specific experiences of children and youth migrating via the Mediterranean migration routes to Europe. In a separate report, IOM identified predictors of vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation for migrants taking these routes. There is limited reliable data on human trafficking and exploitation in displacement contexts.


Emissions by Country

Source: Boden, T.A., Marland, G., and Andres, R.J. (2017). National CO 2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2014 , Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2017. In 2014, the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters were China, the United States, the European Union, India, the Russian Federation, and Japan. These data include CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as well as cement manufacturing and gas flaring. Together, these sources represent a large proportion of total global CO2 emissions.

Emissions and sinks related to changes in land use are not included in these estimates. However, changes in land use can be important: estimates indicate that net global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land use were over 8 billion metric tons of CO2 equivalent, [2] or about 24% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. [3] In areas such as the United States and Europe, changes in land use associated with human activities have the net effect of absorbing CO2, partially offsetting the emissions from deforestation in other regions.


Get exclusive access to unparalleled coverage of 200+ economies around the globe. Helping analysts and economists make sense of the world economy, CEIC Data’s Global Database has been the gold standard for knowledge on markets around the world since 1992. With access to such a vast database, users can gain insight into the ever-changing dynamics of world economies on a level of depth unrivaled by any other competitor.

Understand world’s most dynamic economies: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and Russia. CEIC’s unique Premium Databases offer users a wealth of information on the performance of various sectors and industries in five key developing markets. They offer a comprehensive source of statistics with easy access to CEIC’s experts in interpreting and understanding data.


Discussion

At the broadest scale, all seven lakes showed changes in trophic state and external drivers consistent with some degree of cultural eutrophication (Figs. 2–4-2–4 and Appendix S2: Figs. S3–S5). In the period since European land clearance began to expand c. 1750 CE, all lakes experienced climate change in the form of earlier ice-out, agricultural expansion and contraction, and a continuous increase in human population in the watershed (Appendix S2: Figs. S3–S5). While any of these changes could facilitate lake eutrophication, the timing and extent of inferred change in trophic state differed across lakes and among the paleoecological metrics (Figs. 2–4-2–4). Nevertheless, high concentrations of the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia in sediment records consistently revealed that the recently reported blooms of Gloeotrichia (Winter et al. 2011 , Carey et al. 2012a ) are likely not a new phenomenon (Fig. 4). Among-lake variation in the correlations among fossil markers of trophic state and their relationship to external drivers and lake morphometry (Figs. 5–7-5–7) underscore the importance of considering how the effects of climate or watershed change may be influenced by watershed-specific characteristics (Blenckner 2005 , Leavitt et al. 2009 ).

Within-lake indicators of trophic change

Carbon, nitrogen, and pigments

While this paleoecological study did not reconstruct numerical values for metrics like Secchi depth, nutrients, or water column chlorophyll concentration that are typically used to specify trophic state (e.g., Carlson 1977 ), all seven lakes had sedimentary evidence of eutrophication. The increases in many lakes in sedimentary %C and %N and concentrations of pigments from green algae, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria (Figs. 2, 3)—taxa that tend to increase with eutrophication (e.g., Cottingham et al. 1998 )—were the most consistent evidence of lake eutrophication. Stratigraphically constrained cluster analyses identified these changes as having occurred primarily in the last 30–50 yr, consistent with many studies highlighting the last half-century as a period of intense cultural acceleration of biogeochemical cycles (e.g., Taranu et al. 2015 ). The observation of eutrophication itself was not surprising, given the profound landscape modifications that have occurred since European settlement began c. 1750 CE and the continuing and substantial climate change occurring since at least the mid-1800s. However, variation in timing of changes in each proxy also suggested that assessment of the degree of past eutrophication will depend on the proxy used and will be most easily interpreted in a multi-proxy framework (cf. Bunting et al. 2016 ).

The dissimilarities in timing of eutrophication derived from the different proxies are consistent both with studies that focus on the role particular nutrients or assemblages play in a lake, as well as prior assessments of the utility of various taxa as indicators. The stronger associations among C, N, and pigments, rather than between these metrics and Gloeotrichia (Fig. 5), are similar to findings in modern studies of temporal coherence in which aggregated metrics tend to be more synchronous than more taxonomically resolved, species-level parameters (e.g., Vogt et al. 2011 , Angeler and Johnson 2012 ). This pattern might logically result from the co-occurrence of C and N in bulk organic matter and the importance of N for phytoplankton production. Further, the strong correlations between sediment N parameters and the abundance of pigments from cryptophyte and Nostocales cyanobacteria in a number of lakes (Fig. 5) reinforce the finding that these taxa may be particularly good indicators of increased nutrient availability (Cottingham et al. 1998 ).

Gloeotrichia

Patterns of Gloeotrichia fossil abundance varied tremendously through time and among lakes but clearly demonstrated that this taxon is not new to these ecosystems (Fig. 4). Unexpectedly, Gloeotrichia was historically common in lakes of differing current trophic state (e.g., both oligotrophic Sunapee and mesotrophic Panther) and yet rare in other ecosystems (e.g., oligotrophic Pleasant and mesotrophic Long Pond). Among the study lakes, only eutrophic Sabattus Pond exhibited little Gloeotrichia in past centuries (Fig. 4), perhaps because Gloeotrichia’s need for light for germination (e.g., Karlsson-Elfgren et al. 2004 ) cannot be met in turbid, eutrophic ecosystems like Sabattus Pond. Given the long-term abundances of Gloeotrichia in most of these sediment records, we infer that recently observed increases of Gloeotrichia are not due to their recent arrival in these systems.

Although reports of the apparent expansion of Gloeotrichia in low-nutrient lakes (Winter et al. 2011 , Carey et al. 2012a ) led us to expect pronounced increases in its abundance in the most recent decades associated with climate or land-use changes, this pattern occurred only in Long Pond (Fig. 4). Other paleoecological studies have identified Gloeotrichia as an important taxon during intermediate times of ecosystem transition (Bottema and Sarpaki 2003 , Bunting et al. 2007 , Levine et al. 2012 ), but we did not see strong evidence of Gloeotrichia abundance increasing concomitantly with fossil pigment concentrations in recent decades. In fact, we observed fossil Gloeotrichia densities to be correlated consistently with concentrations of algal and cyanobacterial pigments only at Long Pond (Fig. 5). We have good experimental evidence that Gloeotrichia can be associated with increases in the abundance of other phytoplankton (Carey and Rengefors 2010 , Carey et al. 2014a , b ), and modeling results illustrate how Gloeotrichia’s translocation of nutrients to the water column could tip a lake into a more eutrophic state (Cottingham et al. 2015 ). However, our paleoecological data suggest that whole-lake evidence of such facilitation may occur only in particular cases.

The abundance of Gloeotrichia relative to other primary producers during eutrophication appears to differ across lakes. Short-term laboratory experiments have suggested that Gloeotrichia may stimulate the abundance of the diatom Cyclotella sp. (Carey and Rengefors 2010 ), but in these New England lakes, the long-term outcome of interspecific interactions appears more complex. For example, Gloeotrichia abundance was not correlated with the diatom pigment diatoxanthin at Long Pond despite significant correlations with other pigments, whereas diatoms changed in concert with Gloeotrichia at Lake Auburn (Fig. 5). Lake Auburn also currently has blooms of Dolichospermum (formerly Anabaena) during and following Gloeotrichia blooms (Ewing, unpublished data), a result consistent with the laboratory evidence of enhanced Dolichospermum growth in cultures containing Gloeotrichia (Carey and Rengefors 2010 ). Given that phytoplankton community composition is governed by many different factors, such as zooplankton dynamics, macro- and micronutrient concentrations, light availability, thermal structure, and other factors that vary over multiple temporal scales, it is not surprising that Gloeotrichia’s co-occurrence with other phytoplankton varied both within and among lakes.

Climatic and watershed influence on changes in lake systems

Timing of ice-out

Coeval changes in lake production and ice-out date (Fig. 6) are consistent with process-based studies that demonstrate a synchronizing effect of climate on regional lake phenology (Magnuson et al. 1990 , Arnott et al. 2003 , Vogt et al. 2011 ). Strong correspondence between changes in the ice-out record and the pigment record, rather than between ice-out and Gloeotrichia records, suggests that primary producer abundance estimated from ubiquitous pigments may better reflect the effects of climate change (as ice-free season) than do individual cyanobacterial taxa.

That neither Gloeotrichia nor the cyanobacterial biomarkers canthaxanthin and echinenone were particularly responsive to changes in timing of ice-out in nutrient-poor lakes is unsurprising, as these taxa typically bloom only later in the summer. However, cyanobacteria are predicted to do particularly well in warmer, more thermally stratified lakes (Paerl and Huisman 2008 , Carey et al. 2012b ), conditions that are favored by longer ice-free periods (e.g., O’Reilly et al. 2015 , Woolway and Merchant 2019 ) such as those these lakes are experiencing (Appendix S2: Fig. S5). Importantly, these effects may differ as a function of lake trophic state Rigosi et al. ( 2014 ) suggest that effects of warming temperature on cyanobacteria may occur in eutrophic—but not oligotrophic—lakes. Consistent with this pattern, eutrophic Sabattus Pond exhibited important contributions of cyanobacteria to production, particularly in the most recent decades which also had the shortest periods of ice cover (Fig. 3).

Across most study lakes, vernal and autumnal taxa such as cryptophytes (as alloxanthin), diatoms (diatoxanthin), and secondarily chlorophytes (in part lutein + zeaxanthin) were most responsive to eutrophication (Fig. 3). This pattern suggests that the extended periods of low light, high turbulence, and abundant nutrients in spring and fall resulting from shorter periods of ice duration may be particularly important to overall changes in productivity, including differences in the synchrony of changes among lakes (Dröscher et al., 2009 , Vogt et al. 2011 ). This is also consistent with studies concluding that ice cover plays a key role in composition and abundance of planktonic assemblages (Rioual and Mackay 2005 , Smol et al. 2005 , Katz et al. 2015 , Hampton et al. 2017 ).

The extent of zone-break matches between ice-out and pigment records was strongly associated with the watershed-to-lake area ratio (WA:LA Fig. 7, Appendix S2: Fig. S7). Where WA:LA ratios are high, hydrologic inputs from the watershed can more easily result in either hydrological disturbances (Klug et al. 2012 ) or substantial nutrient influx (Horppilia et al. 2019 and references therein) that may override the effect of ice cover on lake production. In contrast, in lakes with lower WA:LA ratios, the proportional importance of watershed hydrology would be expected to be reduced, favoring closer correspondence between changes in phototrophic production (pigments) and changes in the ice-free period. This scenario is consistent with idea that influxes of energy (irradiance, heat) induce stronger temporal coherence among lakes, whereas influx of mass (water, solutes, particles) can override effects of energy (Leavitt et al. 2009 , Vogt et al. 2011 ). It also further supports arguments from both recent (Brookes and Carey 2011 , Rigosi et al. 2014 ) and paleolimnological (Leavitt et al. 2009 ) perspectives that both temperature and nutrient loading are likely to control lake productivity.

Watershed land use

Changes in anthropogenic drivers related to watershed land use (human population and agricultural activities) sometimes co-occurred with those in sedimentary proxies of trophic state (Fig. 6). In the case of human population, changes were coeval with those of trophic proxies during the 1970s (Figs. 2–4-2–4 and Appendix S2: Fig. S3). During this period, tourism and land subdivision for second homes in Maine increased dramatically (Condon and Barry 1995 ), so these nearshore changes may be particularly important for both N loading and overall productivity as N and pigment proxies most commonly changed in concert with population (Fig. 6 and Appendix S2: Fig. S6). In contrast, correspondence between changes in trophic-state proxies and agricultural activities occurred particularly for C and Gloeotrichia records, supporting other studies pointing to the importance of watershed nutrient additions in regulating primary production (Brookes and Carey 2011 , Rigosi et al. 2014 , Taranu et al. 2015 ). These latter patterns appeared particularly pronounced in currently oligotrophic lakes (Fig. 6) where all trophic-state proxies had some correspondence to changes in agricultural land use, and patterns were even stronger when more allowance was made for uncertainty in dates (Appendix S2: Figs. S6, S7).

Gloeotrichia abundance was greatest in five of our focal lakes around or immediately following the time of maximal European land clearance (c. 1780–1860) and declined as agricultural land use was reduced (Fig. 4). For example, peak abundance of Gloeotrichia in Lake Auburn occurred during initial European land clearance and was followed by a decline coinciding with the end of the most intense period of deforestation in this region (Barton et al. 2012 ) and the initial expansion of sheep production (Connor 1921 ) in Maine’s history (

1780–1810 CE). Watershed clearance, soil disturbance, and introduction of livestock (Appendix S2: Fig. S4) likely resulted in significant nutrient influxes, as seen globally (Carpenter et al. 1998 ), and as suggested as a stimulus for Gloeotrichia in previous paleoecological studies (Van Geel et al. 1996 , Bottema and Sarpaki 2003 , Bunting et al. 2007 ). Consistent with studies in nearby Vermont (Levine et al. 2012 ), the introduction of livestock may be particularly important agents of initial change in lake water quality. Here, the only low-nutrient lake that did not show an increase in Gloeotrichia during European land clearance was Long Pond—also the only site with few sheep and cows in its catchment relative to land area (Appendix S2: Fig. S4).

The extent to which changes in watershed agricultural land use corresponded to those in the Gloeotrichia record was inversely related to WA:LA, as lakes with lower ratios were more likely to exhibit coherence in break patterns (Fig. 7), especially when more allowance was made for possible error in the dating (Appendix S2: Fig. S7). While this observation seems to run counter to the expectation that lakes with high WA:LA are likely to have proportionally larger inputs in times of high flow, it matches recent empirical work showing that cyanotoxin concentrations are higher in lakes with low WA:LA (Hayes and Vanni 2018 ) and that nutrient limitation varies as a function of water input (Hayes et al. 2015 ). In particular, Hayes et al. ( 2015 ) point to the importance of the interaction between precipitation and watershed land use for bloom development and note that lake residence time may be functionally important behind the WA:LA relationships (Hayes and Vanni 2018 ). In our study lakes, water residence times are sufficiently long (Table 1) that it is unlikely that they limit Gloeotrichia bloom development, although it remains possible that pelagic populations are disturbed through mixing resulting from storm events in systems with large WA:LA ratios (as in Klug et al. 2012 ).

We also note that lakes with lower WA:LA ratios have a larger fraction of the watershed land in close proximity to the lake, suggesting that the effects of nearshore agricultural activity—especially those historically involving livestock (Appendix S2: Fig. S4)—may have been particularly important to Gloeotrichia and its recruitment from the littoral zone. The absence of consistent historical data across all sites limits our ability to test this hypothesis. However, the rich historical record of the area around Lake Auburn reveals the close proximity of substantial agricultural activity to the lake (Emil 2017 ), and an oral history describes stocking densities on properties near the lake that were several orders of magnitude greater than that in the county as a whole (L’Hommedieu 2002 ). These historical records and studies documenting greater housing development immediately around lakes than across the landscape as a whole (Schnaiberg et al. 2002 ) support this inference and highlight the importance of future investigation of the impacts of spatially variable patterns of land use on water quality.

Synthesis

Collectively, these paleoecological records demonstrate that regional eutrophication can be variably expressed among individual lakes (cf. Maheaux et al. 2016 ) and yet reveal insights about cyanobacterial populations not easily ascertained from limnological studies spanning shorter time periods. First, the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia is not new to the New England lakes we studied but rather was present before European settlement c. 1750 CE. Second, while there is evidence in one lake for Gloeotrichia as a potential driver of eutrophication, it appears that Gloeotrichia abundance is more often related to watershed land use, particularly in systems with small ratios of watershed area to lake area (WA:LA). Hence, the recent increase in Gloeotrichia seen in contemporary studies (Winter et al. 2011 , Carey et al. 2012a ) may be a function of intensification of nearshore land uses. Third, various manifestations of trophic change—overall organic matter production, patterns of isotopic fractionation, and the abundance of various taxa or groups of taxa, seen here through different proxies—may differ in the story they tell of the timing of shifts even within a single lake. Further, even with similar regional drivers such as climate and broadly similar land-use changes, lakes differ in both the magnitude and nature of response of individual metrics that are related to trophic change. Fourth, the duration of ice cover and the extent of agricultural activity are important drivers of lake trophic change, particularly in systems with smaller WA:LA. Together, these records suggest that single metrics of change in lake trophic state are insufficient and that even aggregate metrics may respond differently across lakes under similar pressures. Hence, attention to the intersection of changes in climate and watershed land use in the context of basin morphometry is necessary to understand how lakes respond to multiple stressors, and lake management will need to attend to this intersection to keep these low-nutrient lakes in the clear-water state.


Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland? - History

  • Environment Agency LIDAR for most of England, free and easy to download.
    • Most of the data is 1m resolution some is 2m, 50cm or 25cm.
    • A blog entry in October 2015 describes the dataset and their intention to put all 10 TB of it online
    • standard tile size is 5km
    • (1-year usage of) the data for the whole country costs £56,250 plus VAT (!) or £25 - £100 per tile per year for smaller areas
    • "Spot heights, breaklines, coastline, lakes, ridges and formlines with a 10 m contour interval. Also available as a gridded DTM with 50 m post spacing"
    • In Ascii Grid and NTF formats, it is a grid of 812 files in 55 folders, each a 401x401 grid (at 50m spacing)
    • 10m/5m DEM of the whole country
    • it was produced using IFSAR, so it will have issue with ground clutter like trees and buildings
    • they provide it in two forms:
      • as-is with the clutter, which they call Digital Surface Model (DSM)
      • a processed version with an attempt at removing the clutter, called "Bald Earth"

      Projects

      Services

      • Service company Skape, based in Leicester and launched in 2010, "provides presentational 3D city and mapping data as well as high accuracy building data", focusing on the UK.
        • They claim to be the first to provide "advanced imagery of 3D heighted buildings of the UK's major cities."
        • They appear to have their own proprietary runtime software, but it's not clear from their site.
        • Developed by Infoterra, a GIS and imagery vendor.

        Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland? - History

        The World Development Report 2021: Data for Better Lives explores the tremendous potential of the changing data landscape to improve the lives of poor people, while also acknowledging its potential to open back doors that

        Data relevant to the coronavirus pandemic, drawn from the World Bank’s data catalog and other authoritative sources.

        The World Bank’s Statistical Capacity Indicator is a composite score assessing the capacity of a country’s statistical system.

        The World Bank's Open Data initiative provides all users with open access to World Bank data.

        The Impact Evaluation Microdata Catalog provides access to data and metadata underlying impact evaluations conducted by the World Bank or other agencies.

        Enterprise Surveys cover a broad range of business environment topics, e.g. access to finance, gender, infrastructure, and performance measures

        Relevant indicators drawn from the World Development Indicators, reorganized according to the goals and targets of the SDGs

        Contract awards including data on commitments against prior-reviewed Bank-funded contracts under IDA/IBRD investment projects and related Trust Funds

        The Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) is a research project that was initiated in 1980


        U.S. Data

        Developer Network: Solar
        This is a list of resources intended to help developers programmatically gain access to NREL’s geospatial solar data and models.

        Solar Radiation Research Laboratory: Baseline Measurement System
        Provides access to live graphical displays, current and historic datasets and more at NREL’s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

        Federal Energy Management Program Screening Map
        Examines the viability of three solar technologies in the United States at the state and federal levels.

        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Tracking the Sun
        Collaborative effort between government, industry, and the public to compile a comprehensive database of photovoltaic installation data for the United States.

        National Solar Radiation Database
        Contains high-resolution meteorological and solar irradiance datasets for select global regions.

        PVDAQ
        Features U.S. photovoltaic performance data contributed to NREL.

        PVWatts
        Estimates the energy production and cost of energy of grid-connected photovoltaic energy systems throughout the world.

        Renewable Energy Atlas
        View and explore renewable energy resource data.

        Renewable Energy Potential Model
        Empowers users to calculate renewable energy capacity, generation, and cost based on geospatial intersection with grid infrastructure and land-use characteristics.

        Solar for All
        Visualizes U.S. rooftop solar technical potential by income, building type, and tenure occupancy in the residential sector.

        Tribal Energy Atlas
        Explore techno-economic renewable energy potential on tribal lands.

        International Data

        National Solar Radiation Database: International Data
        Features a growing list of meteorological and solar irradiance data sets for countries in different parts of the world.

        Renewable Energy Data Explorer
        Features solar data sets for the following countries:


        Watch the video: Geschichte des Vereinigten Königreichs von Großbritannien und Irland (August 2022).