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Fluminense statesman and second emperor of Brazil (1825-1891). His reign consolidates Brazilian sovereignty.
Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Salvador Bebiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocadio Miguel Gabriel Gonzaga (2/12 / 1825-5 / 12/1891) is born in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the seventh son of Dom Pedro I and Empress Maria Leopoldina. He inherits the right to the throne with the death of his older brothers, Miguel and João Carlos. He's 5 years old when his father abdicates. He is crowned at 15, in 1841. In 1843, he married Princess Teresa Cristina Maria de Bourbon, daughter of Francis I, king of the Two Sicilies. Interested in letters and the arts, he maintains correspondence with European scientists, including Pasteur and Gobineaude, and protects intellectuals and writers. During his reign, he travels to various parts of the world, knowing almost all of Europe, the United States and Canada. Quiet and intelligent, it is prestigious for the progress it promotes in the Brazilian economy with the introduction of coffee production and the expansion of the rail and telegraph network. It governs the country until the end of the Empire. On November 15, he is confined to the City Hall of Rio de Janeiro, where he receives the message from the provisional government about the proclamation of the Republic with tranquility. He reads magazines and makes verses, as he later reveals in his diary. He travels to Portugal two days after the proclamation of the Republic, weakened by diabetes. Recovered from the disease, he lives between the French cities of Paris, Cannes and Versailles, where he attends art shows and participates in lectures and conferences. Dies of pneumonia in Paris at the Bedford Hotel.